skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A technique for determining the spatial and temporal distributions of surface fluxes of heat and moisture over the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed

Abstract

Land surface parameterization schemes such as the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB2) have found considerable use in climate simulation models, where they provide lower boundary conditions in the form of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. Here, a methodology is described to apply models of this type at high resolution, using data from the Department of Energy's Cloud and Radiation Testbed in Oklahoma and Kansas, to determine the spatial variations of heat fluxes over the domain and to determine area-weighted flux averages for use in single-column model studies. Data from a dense array of meteorological instruments are interpolated to provide the wind, temperature, vapor pressure, radiation, and precipitation values needed by SiB2. The state of the vegetation is characterized through the use of the normalized difference vegetation index determined from satellites. The performance of the SiB2 model is evaluated by comparing its predictions with flux data from seven Bowen ratio stations over a 6-month period. No tuning of the model parameters for individual sites was allowed during the simulation period. Although there is significant scatter in the results, the performance of the model was generally good, accounting for over 60% of the variance in sensible heat fluxes and over 80% ofmore » the variance in latent heat fluxes. The model was therefore used to prepare “flux maps” for the study area. These maps show large contrasts in sensible and latent heat fluxes associated primarily with differences in vegetation cover and soil moisture over the site. The differences in vegetation, in turn, result from the planting of large areas with winter wheat, which leaves some regions nearly devoid of actively growing vegetation in midsummer, while other areas are still covered with thriving crops or naturally occurring vegetation. Lastly, implications for determining large-area averages of fluxes from a limited number of measurement sites are discussed.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1490213
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-29098
Journal ID: ISSN 0148-0227
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 103; Journal Issue: D6; Journal ID: ISSN 0148-0227
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Doran, J. C., Hubbe, J. M., Liljegren, J. C., Shaw, W. J., Collatz, G. J., Cook, D. R., and Hart, R. L. A technique for determining the spatial and temporal distributions of surface fluxes of heat and moisture over the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed. United States: N. p., 1998. Web. doi:10.1029/97JD03427.
Doran, J. C., Hubbe, J. M., Liljegren, J. C., Shaw, W. J., Collatz, G. J., Cook, D. R., & Hart, R. L. A technique for determining the spatial and temporal distributions of surface fluxes of heat and moisture over the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed. United States. doi:10.1029/97JD03427.
Doran, J. C., Hubbe, J. M., Liljegren, J. C., Shaw, W. J., Collatz, G. J., Cook, D. R., and Hart, R. L. Sun . "A technique for determining the spatial and temporal distributions of surface fluxes of heat and moisture over the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed". United States. doi:10.1029/97JD03427. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1490213.
@article{osti_1490213,
title = {A technique for determining the spatial and temporal distributions of surface fluxes of heat and moisture over the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed},
author = {Doran, J. C. and Hubbe, J. M. and Liljegren, J. C. and Shaw, W. J. and Collatz, G. J. and Cook, D. R. and Hart, R. L.},
abstractNote = {Land surface parameterization schemes such as the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB2) have found considerable use in climate simulation models, where they provide lower boundary conditions in the form of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. Here, a methodology is described to apply models of this type at high resolution, using data from the Department of Energy's Cloud and Radiation Testbed in Oklahoma and Kansas, to determine the spatial variations of heat fluxes over the domain and to determine area-weighted flux averages for use in single-column model studies. Data from a dense array of meteorological instruments are interpolated to provide the wind, temperature, vapor pressure, radiation, and precipitation values needed by SiB2. The state of the vegetation is characterized through the use of the normalized difference vegetation index determined from satellites. The performance of the SiB2 model is evaluated by comparing its predictions with flux data from seven Bowen ratio stations over a 6-month period. No tuning of the model parameters for individual sites was allowed during the simulation period. Although there is significant scatter in the results, the performance of the model was generally good, accounting for over 60% of the variance in sensible heat fluxes and over 80% of the variance in latent heat fluxes. The model was therefore used to prepare “flux maps” for the study area. These maps show large contrasts in sensible and latent heat fluxes associated primarily with differences in vegetation cover and soil moisture over the site. The differences in vegetation, in turn, result from the planting of large areas with winter wheat, which leaves some regions nearly devoid of actively growing vegetation in midsummer, while other areas are still covered with thriving crops or naturally occurring vegetation. Lastly, implications for determining large-area averages of fluxes from a limited number of measurement sites are discussed.},
doi = {10.1029/97JD03427},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research},
number = D6,
volume = 103,
place = {United States},
year = {1998},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 28 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Map of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) showing locations of stations in four different measurement networks and the computational grid used in the present study.

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

A simple hydrologically based model of land surface water and energy fluxes for general circulation models
journal, January 1994

  • Liang, Xu; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Wood, Eric F.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 99, Issue D7
  • DOI: 10.1029/94JD00483

Relations between surface conductance and spectral vegetation indices at intermediate (100 m 2 to 15 km 2 ) length scales
journal, January 1992

  • Sellers, Piers J.; Heiser, Mark D.; Hall, Forrest G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, Issue D17
  • DOI: 10.1029/92JD01096

Modeling of land surface evaporation by four schemes and comparison with FIFE observations
journal, March 1996

  • Chen, Fei; Mitchell, Kenneth; Schaake, John
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 101, Issue D3
  • DOI: 10.1029/95JD02165

Physiological and environmental regulation of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and transpiration: a model that includes a laminar boundary layer
journal, April 1991

  • Collatz, G. James; Ball, J. Timothy; Grivet, Cyril
  • Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 54, Issue 2-4
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-1923(91)90002-8

An overview of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE)
journal, January 1992

  • Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Asrar, G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, Issue D17
  • DOI: 10.1029/92JD02111

Comparison of Radiative and Physiological Effects of Doubled Atmospheric CO2 on Climate
journal, March 1996


A soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer scheme for modeling spatially variable water and energy balance processes
journal, February 1997

  • Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Zion, M. S.; Wood, E. F.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 102, Issue D4
  • DOI: 10.1029/96JD02948

A Revised Land Surface Parameterization (SiB2) for Atmospheric GCMS. Part I: Model Formulation
journal, April 1996


The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes
journal, July 1993


The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Programmatic Background and Design of the Cloud and Radiation Test Bed
journal, July 1994


Coupled Photosynthesis-Stomatal Conductance Model for Leaves of C4 Plants
journal, January 1992

  • Collatz, Gj; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Berry, Ja
  • Functional Plant Biology, Vol. 19, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1071/PP9920519

Single-Column Models and Cloud Ensemble Models as Links between Observations and Climate Models
journal, August 1996


Use of Multiquadric Interpolation for Meteorological Objective Analysis
journal, July 1994


A Simple Biosphere Model (SIB) for Use within General Circulation Models
journal, March 1986


Empirical equations for some soil hydraulic properties
journal, August 1978


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The sensitivity of ground surface temperature prediction to soil thermal properties Using the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB2)
    journal, April 2012

    • Zhang, Xiaohui; Gao, Zhiqiu; Wei, Dongping
    • Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 29, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00376-011-1162-9

    The sensitivity of ground surface temperature prediction to soil thermal properties Using the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB2)
    journal, April 2012

    • Zhang, Xiaohui; Gao, Zhiqiu; Wei, Dongping
    • Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 29, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00376-011-1162-9