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Title: The impact of water injection and exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and emissions in a heavy-duty compression ignition engine operated on diesel and gasoline

Abstract

Steady-state experiments were conducted on a 12.4L, six-cylinder heavy-duty engine to investigate the influence of port-injected water and dilution via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions for diesel and gasoline operation. Adding a diluent to the combustion process reduces peak combustion temperatures and can reduce the reactivity of the charge, thereby increasing the ignition-delay and, allowing for more time to premix air and fuel. Experiments spanned water/fuel mass ratios up to 140mass% and exhaust gas recirculation ratios up to 20vol% for gasoline and diesel operation with different injection strategies. Diluting the combustion process with either water or EGR resulted in a significant reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions along with a reduction in brake thermal efficiency. Furthermore, the sensitivity of brake thermal efficiency to water and EGR varied among the fuels and injection strategies investigated. An efficiency breakdown revealed that water injection considerably reduced the wall heat transfer; however, a substantial increase in exhaust enthalpy offset the reduction in wall heat transfer and led to a reduction in brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, regular diesel operation with main and post injection exhibited a brake thermal efficiency of 45.8% and a 0.3% reduction at a water/fuel ratio of 120%. The enginemore » operation with gasoline, early pilot, and main injection strategy showed a brake thermal efficiency of 45.0% at 0% water/fuel ratio, and a 1.2% decrease in brake thermal efficiency for a water/fuel ratio of 140%. Using EGR as a diluent reduced the brake thermal efficiency by 0.3% for diesel operation, comparing ratios of 0% and 20% EGR. However, a higher impact on brake thermal efficiency was seen for gasoline operation with early pilot and main injection strategy, with a reduction of about 0.8% comparing 0% and 20% EGR. Dilution by means of EGR exhibited a reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions up to 15 g/kWh; water injection showed only up to 10 g/kWh reduction for the EGR rates and water/fuel ratio investigated.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3];  [2]
  1. Mechanical, Materials, &, Aerospace Engineering Department, Armour College of Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA
  2. Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, USA
  3. Navistar, Melrose Park, IL, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1490153
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1657506
Grant/Contract Number:  
EE0007767; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
International Journal of Engine Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: International Journal of Engine Research; Journal ID: ISSN 1468-0874
Publisher:
SAGE
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; EGR; Early pilot injection; Gasoline compression ignition; Injection strategies; Water injection

Citation Formats

Pamminger, Michael, Wang, Buyu, Hall, Carrie M., Vojtech, Ryan, and Wallner, Thomas. The impact of water injection and exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and emissions in a heavy-duty compression ignition engine operated on diesel and gasoline. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468087418815290.
Pamminger, Michael, Wang, Buyu, Hall, Carrie M., Vojtech, Ryan, & Wallner, Thomas. The impact of water injection and exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and emissions in a heavy-duty compression ignition engine operated on diesel and gasoline. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468087418815290
Pamminger, Michael, Wang, Buyu, Hall, Carrie M., Vojtech, Ryan, and Wallner, Thomas. Tue . "The impact of water injection and exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and emissions in a heavy-duty compression ignition engine operated on diesel and gasoline". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468087418815290.
@article{osti_1490153,
title = {The impact of water injection and exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and emissions in a heavy-duty compression ignition engine operated on diesel and gasoline},
author = {Pamminger, Michael and Wang, Buyu and Hall, Carrie M. and Vojtech, Ryan and Wallner, Thomas},
abstractNote = {Steady-state experiments were conducted on a 12.4L, six-cylinder heavy-duty engine to investigate the influence of port-injected water and dilution via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions for diesel and gasoline operation. Adding a diluent to the combustion process reduces peak combustion temperatures and can reduce the reactivity of the charge, thereby increasing the ignition-delay and, allowing for more time to premix air and fuel. Experiments spanned water/fuel mass ratios up to 140mass% and exhaust gas recirculation ratios up to 20vol% for gasoline and diesel operation with different injection strategies. Diluting the combustion process with either water or EGR resulted in a significant reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions along with a reduction in brake thermal efficiency. Furthermore, the sensitivity of brake thermal efficiency to water and EGR varied among the fuels and injection strategies investigated. An efficiency breakdown revealed that water injection considerably reduced the wall heat transfer; however, a substantial increase in exhaust enthalpy offset the reduction in wall heat transfer and led to a reduction in brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, regular diesel operation with main and post injection exhibited a brake thermal efficiency of 45.8% and a 0.3% reduction at a water/fuel ratio of 120%. The engine operation with gasoline, early pilot, and main injection strategy showed a brake thermal efficiency of 45.0% at 0% water/fuel ratio, and a 1.2% decrease in brake thermal efficiency for a water/fuel ratio of 140%. Using EGR as a diluent reduced the brake thermal efficiency by 0.3% for diesel operation, comparing ratios of 0% and 20% EGR. However, a higher impact on brake thermal efficiency was seen for gasoline operation with early pilot and main injection strategy, with a reduction of about 0.8% comparing 0% and 20% EGR. Dilution by means of EGR exhibited a reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions up to 15 g/kWh; water injection showed only up to 10 g/kWh reduction for the EGR rates and water/fuel ratio investigated.},
doi = {10.1177/1468087418815290},
journal = {International Journal of Engine Research},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1177/1468087418815290

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Cited by: 4 works
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    Uncertainty quantification from raw measurements to post-processed data: A general methodology and its application to a homogeneous-charge compression–ignition engine
    journal, December 2019

    • Pochet, Maxime; Jeanmart, Hervé; Contino, Francesco
    • International Journal of Engine Research, Vol. 21, Issue 9
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