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Title: Seamless lateral graphene p–n junctions formed by selective in situ doping for high-performance photodetectors

Abstract

Lateral graphene p–n junctions are important since they constitute the core components in a variety of electronic/photonic systems. However, formation of lateral graphene p–n junctions with a controllable doping levels is still a great challenge due to the monolayer feature of graphene. Herein, by performing selective ion implantation and in situ growth by dynamic chemical vapor deposition, direct formation of seamless lateral graphene p–n junctions with spatial control and tunable doping is demonstrated. Uniform lattice substitution with heteroatoms is achieved in both the boron-doped and nitrogen-doped regions and photoelectrical assessment reveals that the seamless lateral p–n junctions exhibit a distinct photocurrent response under ambient conditions. As ion implantation is a standard technique in microelectronics, our study suggests a simple and effective strategy for mass production of graphene p–n junctions with batch capability and spatial controllability, which can be readily integrated into the production of graphene-based electronics and photonics.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Ningbo Univ. (China)
  2. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China)
  3. Peking Univ., Beijing (China)
  4. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  5. City Univ. of Hong Kong (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC). Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1489971
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-31496
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Material Science

Citation Formats

Wang, Gang, Zhang, Miao, Chen, Da, Guo, Qinglei, Feng, Xuefei, Niu, Tianchao, Liu, Xiaosong, Li, Ang, Lai, Jiawei, Sun, Dong, Liao, Zhimin, Wang, Yongqiang, Chu, Paul K., Ding, Guqiao, Xie, Xiaoming, Di, Zengfeng, and Wang, Xi. Seamless lateral graphene p–n junctions formed by selective in situ doping for high-performance photodetectors. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07555-6.
Wang, Gang, Zhang, Miao, Chen, Da, Guo, Qinglei, Feng, Xuefei, Niu, Tianchao, Liu, Xiaosong, Li, Ang, Lai, Jiawei, Sun, Dong, Liao, Zhimin, Wang, Yongqiang, Chu, Paul K., Ding, Guqiao, Xie, Xiaoming, Di, Zengfeng, & Wang, Xi. Seamless lateral graphene p–n junctions formed by selective in situ doping for high-performance photodetectors. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07555-6.
Wang, Gang, Zhang, Miao, Chen, Da, Guo, Qinglei, Feng, Xuefei, Niu, Tianchao, Liu, Xiaosong, Li, Ang, Lai, Jiawei, Sun, Dong, Liao, Zhimin, Wang, Yongqiang, Chu, Paul K., Ding, Guqiao, Xie, Xiaoming, Di, Zengfeng, and Wang, Xi. Wed . "Seamless lateral graphene p–n junctions formed by selective in situ doping for high-performance photodetectors". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07555-6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1489971.
@article{osti_1489971,
title = {Seamless lateral graphene p–n junctions formed by selective in situ doping for high-performance photodetectors},
author = {Wang, Gang and Zhang, Miao and Chen, Da and Guo, Qinglei and Feng, Xuefei and Niu, Tianchao and Liu, Xiaosong and Li, Ang and Lai, Jiawei and Sun, Dong and Liao, Zhimin and Wang, Yongqiang and Chu, Paul K. and Ding, Guqiao and Xie, Xiaoming and Di, Zengfeng and Wang, Xi},
abstractNote = {Lateral graphene p–n junctions are important since they constitute the core components in a variety of electronic/photonic systems. However, formation of lateral graphene p–n junctions with a controllable doping levels is still a great challenge due to the monolayer feature of graphene. Herein, by performing selective ion implantation and in situ growth by dynamic chemical vapor deposition, direct formation of seamless lateral graphene p–n junctions with spatial control and tunable doping is demonstrated. Uniform lattice substitution with heteroatoms is achieved in both the boron-doped and nitrogen-doped regions and photoelectrical assessment reveals that the seamless lateral p–n junctions exhibit a distinct photocurrent response under ambient conditions. As ion implantation is a standard technique in microelectronics, our study suggests a simple and effective strategy for mass production of graphene p–n junctions with batch capability and spatial controllability, which can be readily integrated into the production of graphene-based electronics and photonics.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-07555-6},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Characterization of the seamless lateral graphene p–n junction. a Schematic diagrams showing the synthesis process of the seamless lateral graphene p–n junctions. 1, 2, and 3 represent diffusion of Ni, Cu, and dopant (B or N) atoms, and 4 represents carbon atoms supplied by the decomposition of CH4.more » b Schematic diagram of the graphene photodetector array constructed on the seamless lateral graphene p–n junction. c A real image of the graphene photodetector array on the seamless lateral graphene p–n junction. The scale bar is 1 cm. d Pseudo-color SEM image of the seamless lateral graphene p–n junction device. The scale bar is 4 μm. e 2D peak map of the junction area of the lateral graphene p–n junction showing the B-doped graphene region (orange, B ion implantation using a fluence of 4 × 1016 atoms/cm2) and N-doped graphene region (green, N ion implantation with a fluence of 4 × 1016 atoms/cm2). The scale bar is 1 μm. f Raman spectra acquired from three different regions indicated in (e): (I) N-doped graphene portion (orange), (II) Junction location (blue), and (III) B-doped graphene region (red). g High-resolution XPS B-1s spectrum of the B-doped graphene film. h High-resolution XPS N-1s spectrum of the N-doped graphene film. EELS images of i, B-doped graphene and j, N-doped graphene« less

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