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Title: Large-area single-crystal sheets of borophene on Cu(111) surfaces

Borophene, a theoretically proposed two-dimensional (2D) boron allotrope has attracted much attention as a candidate material platform for high-speed, transparent and flexible electronics. It was recently synthesized, on Ag(111) substrates and studied by tunneling and electron spectroscopy. However, the exact crystal structure is still controversial, the nanometre-size single-crystal domains produced so far are too small for device fabrication and the structural tunability via substrate-dependent epitaxy is yet to be proven. We report on the synthesis of borophene monitored in situ by low-energy electron microscopy, diffraction and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and modelled by ab initio theory. We resolved the crystal structure and phase diagram of borophene on Ag(111), but found that the domains remain nanoscale for all growth conditions. However, by growing borophene on Cu(111) surfaces, we obtained large single-crystal domains, up to 100 μm 2 in size. The crystal structure is a novel triangular network with a concentration of hexagonal vacancies of η = 1/5. Our experimental data, together with first principles calculations, indicate charge-transfer coupling to the substrate without significant covalent bonding. Lastly, our work sets the stage for fabricating borophene-based devices and substantiates the idea of borophene as a model for development of artificial 2D materials.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [3] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Yale Univ., West Haven, CT (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
  4. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Yale Univ., West Haven, CT (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Nanotechnology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 1; Related Information: A Supplementary Information file and three Supplementary Videos accompany the main manuscript.; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-3387
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; quantum materials; borophene
OSTI Identifier:
1489234

Wu, Rongting, Drozdov, Ilya K., Eltinge, Stephen, Zahl, Percy, Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab, Božović, Ivan, and Gozar, Adrian. Large-area single-crystal sheets of borophene on Cu(111) surfaces. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0317-6.
Wu, Rongting, Drozdov, Ilya K., Eltinge, Stephen, Zahl, Percy, Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab, Božović, Ivan, & Gozar, Adrian. Large-area single-crystal sheets of borophene on Cu(111) surfaces. United States. doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0317-6.
Wu, Rongting, Drozdov, Ilya K., Eltinge, Stephen, Zahl, Percy, Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab, Božović, Ivan, and Gozar, Adrian. 2018. "Large-area single-crystal sheets of borophene on Cu(111) surfaces". United States. doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0317-6.
@article{osti_1489234,
title = {Large-area single-crystal sheets of borophene on Cu(111) surfaces},
author = {Wu, Rongting and Drozdov, Ilya K. and Eltinge, Stephen and Zahl, Percy and Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab and Božović, Ivan and Gozar, Adrian},
abstractNote = {Borophene, a theoretically proposed two-dimensional (2D) boron allotrope has attracted much attention as a candidate material platform for high-speed, transparent and flexible electronics. It was recently synthesized, on Ag(111) substrates and studied by tunneling and electron spectroscopy. However, the exact crystal structure is still controversial, the nanometre-size single-crystal domains produced so far are too small for device fabrication and the structural tunability via substrate-dependent epitaxy is yet to be proven. We report on the synthesis of borophene monitored in situ by low-energy electron microscopy, diffraction and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and modelled by ab initio theory. We resolved the crystal structure and phase diagram of borophene on Ag(111), but found that the domains remain nanoscale for all growth conditions. However, by growing borophene on Cu(111) surfaces, we obtained large single-crystal domains, up to 100 μm2 in size. The crystal structure is a novel triangular network with a concentration of hexagonal vacancies of η = 1/5. Our experimental data, together with first principles calculations, indicate charge-transfer coupling to the substrate without significant covalent bonding. Lastly, our work sets the stage for fabricating borophene-based devices and substantiates the idea of borophene as a model for development of artificial 2D materials.},
doi = {10.1038/s41565-018-0317-6},
journal = {Nature Nanotechnology},
number = 1,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

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