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Title: Candidate massive galaxies at z  ∼ 4 in the Dark Energy Survey

Abstract

Using stellar population models, we predicted that the Dark Energy Survey (DES) - due to its special combination of area (5000 deg. sq.) and depth ($i = 24.3$) - would be in the position to detect massive ($$\gtrsim 10^{11}$$ M$$_{\odot}$$) galaxies at $$z \sim 4$$. We confront those theoretical calculations with the first $$\sim 150$$ deg. sq. of DES data reaching nominal depth. From a catalogue containing $$\sim 5$$ million sources, $$\sim26000$$ were found to have observed-frame $g-r$ vs $r-i$ colours within the locus predicted for $$z \sim 4$$ massive galaxies. We further removed contamination by stars and artefacts, obtaining 606 galaxies lining up by the model selection box. We obtained their photometric redshifts and physical properties by fitting model templates spanning a wide range of star formation histories, reddening and redshift. Key to constrain the models is the addition, to the optical DES bands $g$, $r$, $i$, $z$, and $Y$, of near-IR $J$, $H$, $$K_{s}$$ data from the Vista Hemisphere Survey. We further applied several quality cuts to the fitting results, including goodness of fit and a unimodal redshift probability distribution. We finally select 233 candidates whose photometric redshift probability distribution function peaks around $$z\sim4$$, have high stellar masses ($$\log($$M$$^{*}$$/M$$_{\odot})\sim 11.7$$ for a Salpeter IMF) and ages around 0.1 Gyr, i.e. formation redshift around 5. These properties match those of the progenitors of the most massive galaxies in the local universe. This is an ideal sample for spectroscopic follow-up to select the fraction of galaxies which is truly at high redshift. These initial results and those at the survey completion, which we shall push to higher redshifts, will set unprecedented constraints on galaxy formation, evolution, and the re-ionisation epoch.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9]; ORCiD logo [4];  [10];  [7];  [11];  [4] more »;  [12];  [13];  [7];  [8];  [14];  [15]; ORCiD logo [9];  [7];  [1];  [16];  [17];  [18];  [16];  [19];  [20];  [4];  [13];  [17]; ORCiD logo [21];  [22];  [23]; ORCiD logo [24];  [1];  [25];  [12];  [7];  [26];  [12];  [27]; ORCiD logo [28];  [29]; ORCiD logo [30];  [31];  [32];  [33] « less
  1. Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, UK
  2. ESTEC: European Space Research and Technology Centre, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, the Netherlands
  3. University of Nottingham, School of Physics & Astronomy, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
  4. Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia – LIneA, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil; Observatorio Nacional, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil
  5. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark Str, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  6. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile
  7. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA
  8. Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
  9. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, PO Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  10. Institut de Fisica d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain
  11. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
  12. Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), E-28040 Madrid, Spain
  13. George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
  14. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA; Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, PO Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
  15. Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain
  16. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
  17. Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  18. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
  19. Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia
  20. Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia – LIneA, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil; Departamento de Fisica Matematica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, Sao Paulo, SP 05314-970, Brazil
  21. Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
  22. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Str, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark Str Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  23. Institut de Fisica d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain; Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, E-08010 Barcelona, Spain
  24. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
  25. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pevensey Building, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK
  26. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  27. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
  28. Brandeis University, Physics Department, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
  29. Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia – LIneA, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil; Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP, Brazil
  30. Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
  31. Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  32. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  33. National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark Str, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21)
Contributing Org.:
DES
OSTI Identifier:
1489092
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1488587
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1811.12422; FERMILAB-PUB-18-256-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711; 1706094
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 483; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies: evolution; galaxies: high-redshift

Citation Formats

Guarnieri, Pierandrea, Maraston, Claudia, Thomas, Daniel, Pforr, Janine, Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta, Etherington, James, Carlsen, Joakim, Morice-Atkinson, Xan, Conselice, Christopher J., Gschwend, Julia, Carrasco Kind, Matias, Abbott, Tim, Allam, Sahar, Brooks, David, Burke, David, Carnero Rosell, Aurelio, Carretero, Jorge, Cunha, Carlos, D’Andrea, Chris, da Costa, Luiz, De Vincente, Juan, DePoy, Darren, Thomas Diehl, H., Doel, Peter, Frieman, Josh, Garcia-Bellido, Juan, Gruen, Daniel, Gutierrez, Gaston, Hanley, Dominic, Hollowood, Devon, Honscheid, Klaus, James, David, Jeltema, Tesla, Kuehn, Kyler, Lima, Marcos, Maia, Marcio A. G., Marshall, Jennifer, Martini, Paul, Melchior, Peter, Menanteau, Felipe, Miquel, Ramon, Plazas Malagon, Andres, Richardson, Samuel, Romer, Kathy, Sanchez, Eusebio, Scarpine, Vic, Schindler, Rafe, Sevilla, Ignacio, Smith, Mathew, Soares-Santos, Marcelle, Sobreira, Flavia, Suchyta, Eric, Tarle, Gregory, Walker, Alistair, and Wester, William. Candidate massive galaxies at z  ∼ 4 in the Dark Energy Survey. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty3305.
Guarnieri, Pierandrea, Maraston, Claudia, Thomas, Daniel, Pforr, Janine, Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta, Etherington, James, Carlsen, Joakim, Morice-Atkinson, Xan, Conselice, Christopher J., Gschwend, Julia, Carrasco Kind, Matias, Abbott, Tim, Allam, Sahar, Brooks, David, Burke, David, Carnero Rosell, Aurelio, Carretero, Jorge, Cunha, Carlos, D’Andrea, Chris, da Costa, Luiz, De Vincente, Juan, DePoy, Darren, Thomas Diehl, H., Doel, Peter, Frieman, Josh, Garcia-Bellido, Juan, Gruen, Daniel, Gutierrez, Gaston, Hanley, Dominic, Hollowood, Devon, Honscheid, Klaus, James, David, Jeltema, Tesla, Kuehn, Kyler, Lima, Marcos, Maia, Marcio A. G., Marshall, Jennifer, Martini, Paul, Melchior, Peter, Menanteau, Felipe, Miquel, Ramon, Plazas Malagon, Andres, Richardson, Samuel, Romer, Kathy, Sanchez, Eusebio, Scarpine, Vic, Schindler, Rafe, Sevilla, Ignacio, Smith, Mathew, Soares-Santos, Marcelle, Sobreira, Flavia, Suchyta, Eric, Tarle, Gregory, Walker, Alistair, & Wester, William. Candidate massive galaxies at z  ∼ 4 in the Dark Energy Survey. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty3305.
Guarnieri, Pierandrea, Maraston, Claudia, Thomas, Daniel, Pforr, Janine, Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta, Etherington, James, Carlsen, Joakim, Morice-Atkinson, Xan, Conselice, Christopher J., Gschwend, Julia, Carrasco Kind, Matias, Abbott, Tim, Allam, Sahar, Brooks, David, Burke, David, Carnero Rosell, Aurelio, Carretero, Jorge, Cunha, Carlos, D’Andrea, Chris, da Costa, Luiz, De Vincente, Juan, DePoy, Darren, Thomas Diehl, H., Doel, Peter, Frieman, Josh, Garcia-Bellido, Juan, Gruen, Daniel, Gutierrez, Gaston, Hanley, Dominic, Hollowood, Devon, Honscheid, Klaus, James, David, Jeltema, Tesla, Kuehn, Kyler, Lima, Marcos, Maia, Marcio A. G., Marshall, Jennifer, Martini, Paul, Melchior, Peter, Menanteau, Felipe, Miquel, Ramon, Plazas Malagon, Andres, Richardson, Samuel, Romer, Kathy, Sanchez, Eusebio, Scarpine, Vic, Schindler, Rafe, Sevilla, Ignacio, Smith, Mathew, Soares-Santos, Marcelle, Sobreira, Flavia, Suchyta, Eric, Tarle, Gregory, Walker, Alistair, and Wester, William. Thu . "Candidate massive galaxies at z  ∼ 4 in the Dark Energy Survey". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty3305. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1489092.
@article{osti_1489092,
title = {Candidate massive galaxies at z  ∼ 4 in the Dark Energy Survey},
author = {Guarnieri, Pierandrea and Maraston, Claudia and Thomas, Daniel and Pforr, Janine and Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta and Etherington, James and Carlsen, Joakim and Morice-Atkinson, Xan and Conselice, Christopher J. and Gschwend, Julia and Carrasco Kind, Matias and Abbott, Tim and Allam, Sahar and Brooks, David and Burke, David and Carnero Rosell, Aurelio and Carretero, Jorge and Cunha, Carlos and D’Andrea, Chris and da Costa, Luiz and De Vincente, Juan and DePoy, Darren and Thomas Diehl, H. and Doel, Peter and Frieman, Josh and Garcia-Bellido, Juan and Gruen, Daniel and Gutierrez, Gaston and Hanley, Dominic and Hollowood, Devon and Honscheid, Klaus and James, David and Jeltema, Tesla and Kuehn, Kyler and Lima, Marcos and Maia, Marcio A. G. and Marshall, Jennifer and Martini, Paul and Melchior, Peter and Menanteau, Felipe and Miquel, Ramon and Plazas Malagon, Andres and Richardson, Samuel and Romer, Kathy and Sanchez, Eusebio and Scarpine, Vic and Schindler, Rafe and Sevilla, Ignacio and Smith, Mathew and Soares-Santos, Marcelle and Sobreira, Flavia and Suchyta, Eric and Tarle, Gregory and Walker, Alistair and Wester, William},
abstractNote = {Using stellar population models, we predicted that the Dark Energy Survey (DES) - due to its special combination of area (5000 deg. sq.) and depth ($i = 24.3$) - would be in the position to detect massive ($\gtrsim 10^{11}$ M$_{\odot}$) galaxies at $z \sim 4$. We confront those theoretical calculations with the first $\sim 150$ deg. sq. of DES data reaching nominal depth. From a catalogue containing $\sim 5$ million sources, $\sim26000$ were found to have observed-frame $g-r$ vs $r-i$ colours within the locus predicted for $z \sim 4$ massive galaxies. We further removed contamination by stars and artefacts, obtaining 606 galaxies lining up by the model selection box. We obtained their photometric redshifts and physical properties by fitting model templates spanning a wide range of star formation histories, reddening and redshift. Key to constrain the models is the addition, to the optical DES bands $g$, $r$, $i$, $z$, and $Y$, of near-IR $J$, $H$, $K_{s}$ data from the Vista Hemisphere Survey. We further applied several quality cuts to the fitting results, including goodness of fit and a unimodal redshift probability distribution. We finally select 233 candidates whose photometric redshift probability distribution function peaks around $z\sim4$, have high stellar masses ($\log($M$^{*}$/M$_{\odot})\sim 11.7$ for a Salpeter IMF) and ages around 0.1 Gyr, i.e. formation redshift around 5. These properties match those of the progenitors of the most massive galaxies in the local universe. This is an ideal sample for spectroscopic follow-up to select the fraction of galaxies which is truly at high redshift. These initial results and those at the survey completion, which we shall push to higher redshifts, will set unprecedented constraints on galaxy formation, evolution, and the re-ionisation epoch.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/sty3305},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 3,
volume = 483,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

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  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/141/6/185

The star formation rate density from z = 1 to 6
journal, June 2016

  • Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Oliver, Seb; Wang, Lingyu
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 461, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1169

Star formation and mass assembly in high redshift galaxies
journal, July 2009


Jekyll & Hyde: quiescence and extreme obscuration in a pair of massive galaxies 1.5 Gyr after the Big Bang
journal, March 2018


An Imperfectly Passive Nature: Bright Submillimeter Emission from Dust-obscured Star Formation in the z = 3.717 “Passive” System, ZF 20115
journal, July 2017


EXPLORING THE z = 3-4 MASSIVE GALAXY POPULATION WITH ZFOURGE: THE PREVALENCE OF DUSTY AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES
journal, May 2014

  • Spitler, Lee R.; Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Labbé, Ivo
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 787, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/787/2/L36

WHAT ARE THE PROGENITORS OF COMPACT, MASSIVE, QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT z = 2.3? THE POPULATION OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z > 3 FROM NMBS AND CANDELS
journal, April 2013

  • Stefanon, Mauro; Marchesini, Danilo; Rudnick, Gregory H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 768, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/768/1/92

A SUBSTANTIAL POPULATION OF MASSIVE QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 4 FROM ZFOURGE
journal, February 2014

  • Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Labbé, Ivo; Spitler, Lee R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 783, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/783/1/L14

Photometric redshift analysis in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data
journal, October 2014

  • Sánchez, C.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Lin, H.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 445, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1836

CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey: I. Survey presentation⋆
journal, January 2012


The Epochs of Early‐Type Galaxy Formation as a Function of Environment
journal, March 2005

  • Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Bender, Ralf
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 621, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/426932

The 2df SDSS LRG and QSO survey: evolution of the luminosity function of luminous red galaxies to z = 0.6
journal, October 2006

  • Wake, David A.; Nichol, Robert C.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 372, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10831.x

The galaxy population in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies
journal, April 2017

  • Wang, Lan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Xie, Lizhi
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 468, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx788

QUIESCENT GALAXIES IN THE 3D-HST SURVEY: SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF A LARGE NUMBER OF GALAXIES WITH RELATIVELY OLD STELLAR POPULATIONS AT z ∼ 2
journal, June 2013

  • Whitaker, Katherine E.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 770, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/770/2/L39

Core condensation in heavy halos: a two-stage theory for galaxy formation and clustering
journal, July 1978

  • White, S. D. M.; Rees, M. J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 183, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/183.3.341

High‐Redshift Extremely Red Objects in the Hubble Space Telescope Ultra Deep Field Revealed by the GOODS Infrared Array Camera Observations
journal, November 2004

  • Yan, Haojing; Dickinson, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 616, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/424898

Young Galaxy Candidates in the Hubble Frontier Fields. i. A2744
journal, October 2014