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Title: A Search for Optical Emission from Binary Black Hole Merger GW170814 with the Dark Energy Camera

Abstract

Binary black hole (BBH) mergers found by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo detectors are of immense scientific interest to the astrophysics community, but are considered unlikely to be sources of electromagnetic emission. To test whether they have rapidly fading optical counterparts, we used the Dark Energy Camera to perform an i-band search for the BBH merger GW170814, the first gravitational wave (GW) detected by three interferometers. The 87 deg 2 localization region (at 90% confidence) centered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) footprint enabled us to image 86% of the probable sky area to a depth of i ~ 23 mag and provide the most comprehensive data set to search for electromagnetic (EM) emission from BBH mergers. To identify candidates, we perform difference imaging with our search images and with templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey (DES) images. The analysis strategy and selection requirements were designed to remove supernovae and to identify transients that decline in the first two epochs. We find two candidates, each of which is spatially coincident with a star or a high-redshift galaxy in the DES catalogs, and they are thus unlikely to be associated with GW170814. Our search finds no candidates associatedmore » with GW170814, disfavoring rapidly declining optical emission from BBH mergers brighter than i ~ 23 mag (L optical ~ 5 × 10 41 erg s -1) 1–2 days after coalescence. In terms of GW sky map coverage, this is the most complete search for optical counterparts to BBH mergers to date.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21)
Contributing Org.:
DES Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1488586
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1503974
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1812.01579; FERMILAB-PUB-18-601-PPD
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213; 1706852
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 873; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Doctor, Z., Kessler, R., Herner, K., Palmese, A., Soares-Santos, M., Annis, J., Brout, D., Holz, D. E., Sako, M., Rest, A., Cowperthwaite, P., Berger, E., Foley, R. J., Conselice, C. J., Gill, M. S. S., Allam, S., Balbinot, E., Butler, R. E., Chen, H. -Y., Chornock, R., Cook, E., Diehl, H. T., Farr, B., Fong, W., Frieman, J., Fryer, C., García-Bellido, J., Margutti, R., Marshall, J. L., Matheson, T., Metzger, B. D., Nicholl, M., Paz-Chinchón, F., Salim, S., Sauseda, M., Secco, L. F., Smith, R. C., Smith, N., Vivas, A. K., Tucker, D. L., Abbott, T. M. C., Avila, S., Bechtol, K., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., D’Andrea, C. B., da Costa, L. N., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Doel, P., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gutierrez, G., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., Hoyle, B., James, D. J., Jeltema, T., Kent, S., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Neilsen, E., Nord, B., Ogando, R. L. C., Plazas, A. A., Roodman, A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Walker, A. R., and Wester, W. A Search for Optical Emission from Binary Black Hole Merger GW170814 with the Dark Energy Camera. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab08a3.
Doctor, Z., Kessler, R., Herner, K., Palmese, A., Soares-Santos, M., Annis, J., Brout, D., Holz, D. E., Sako, M., Rest, A., Cowperthwaite, P., Berger, E., Foley, R. J., Conselice, C. J., Gill, M. S. S., Allam, S., Balbinot, E., Butler, R. E., Chen, H. -Y., Chornock, R., Cook, E., Diehl, H. T., Farr, B., Fong, W., Frieman, J., Fryer, C., García-Bellido, J., Margutti, R., Marshall, J. L., Matheson, T., Metzger, B. D., Nicholl, M., Paz-Chinchón, F., Salim, S., Sauseda, M., Secco, L. F., Smith, R. C., Smith, N., Vivas, A. K., Tucker, D. L., Abbott, T. M. C., Avila, S., Bechtol, K., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., D’Andrea, C. B., da Costa, L. N., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Doel, P., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gutierrez, G., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., Hoyle, B., James, D. J., Jeltema, T., Kent, S., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Neilsen, E., Nord, B., Ogando, R. L. C., Plazas, A. A., Roodman, A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Walker, A. R., & Wester, W. A Search for Optical Emission from Binary Black Hole Merger GW170814 with the Dark Energy Camera. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab08a3.
Doctor, Z., Kessler, R., Herner, K., Palmese, A., Soares-Santos, M., Annis, J., Brout, D., Holz, D. E., Sako, M., Rest, A., Cowperthwaite, P., Berger, E., Foley, R. J., Conselice, C. J., Gill, M. S. S., Allam, S., Balbinot, E., Butler, R. E., Chen, H. -Y., Chornock, R., Cook, E., Diehl, H. T., Farr, B., Fong, W., Frieman, J., Fryer, C., García-Bellido, J., Margutti, R., Marshall, J. L., Matheson, T., Metzger, B. D., Nicholl, M., Paz-Chinchón, F., Salim, S., Sauseda, M., Secco, L. F., Smith, R. C., Smith, N., Vivas, A. K., Tucker, D. L., Abbott, T. M. C., Avila, S., Bechtol, K., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., D’Andrea, C. B., da Costa, L. N., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Doel, P., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gutierrez, G., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., Hoyle, B., James, D. J., Jeltema, T., Kent, S., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Neilsen, E., Nord, B., Ogando, R. L. C., Plazas, A. A., Roodman, A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Walker, A. R., and Wester, W. Fri . "A Search for Optical Emission from Binary Black Hole Merger GW170814 with the Dark Energy Camera". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab08a3.
@article{osti_1488586,
title = {A Search for Optical Emission from Binary Black Hole Merger GW170814 with the Dark Energy Camera},
author = {Doctor, Z. and Kessler, R. and Herner, K. and Palmese, A. and Soares-Santos, M. and Annis, J. and Brout, D. and Holz, D. E. and Sako, M. and Rest, A. and Cowperthwaite, P. and Berger, E. and Foley, R. J. and Conselice, C. J. and Gill, M. S. S. and Allam, S. and Balbinot, E. and Butler, R. E. and Chen, H. -Y. and Chornock, R. and Cook, E. and Diehl, H. T. and Farr, B. and Fong, W. and Frieman, J. and Fryer, C. and García-Bellido, J. and Margutti, R. and Marshall, J. L. and Matheson, T. and Metzger, B. D. and Nicholl, M. and Paz-Chinchón, F. and Salim, S. and Sauseda, M. and Secco, L. F. and Smith, R. C. and Smith, N. and Vivas, A. K. and Tucker, D. L. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Avila, S. and Bechtol, K. and Bertin, E. and Brooks, D. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Burke, D. L. and Rosell, A. Carnero and Carrasco Kind, M. and Carretero, J. and Castander, F. J. and D’Andrea, C. B. and da Costa, L. N. and De Vicente, J. and Desai, S. and Doel, P. and Flaugher, B. and Fosalba, P. and Gaztanaga, E. and Gerdes, D. W. and Goldstein, D. A. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gutierrez, G. and Hartley, W. G. and Hollowood, D. L. and Honscheid, K. and Hoyle, B. and James, D. J. and Jeltema, T. and Kent, S. and Kuehn, K. and Kuropatkin, N. and Lahav, O. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and March, M. and Menanteau, F. and Miller, C. J. and Miquel, R. and Neilsen, E. and Nord, B. and Ogando, R. L. C. and Plazas, A. A. and Roodman, A. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schindler, R. and Schubnell, M. and Serrano, S. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, M. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Thomas, D. and Walker, A. R. and Wester, W.},
abstractNote = {Binary black hole (BBH) mergers found by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo detectors are of immense scientific interest to the astrophysics community, but are considered unlikely to be sources of electromagnetic emission. To test whether they have rapidly fading optical counterparts, we used the Dark Energy Camera to perform an i-band search for the BBH merger GW170814, the first gravitational wave (GW) detected by three interferometers. The 87 deg2 localization region (at 90% confidence) centered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) footprint enabled us to image 86% of the probable sky area to a depth of i ~ 23 mag and provide the most comprehensive data set to search for electromagnetic (EM) emission from BBH mergers. To identify candidates, we perform difference imaging with our search images and with templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey (DES) images. The analysis strategy and selection requirements were designed to remove supernovae and to identify transients that decline in the first two epochs. We find two candidates, each of which is spatially coincident with a star or a high-redshift galaxy in the DES catalogs, and they are thus unlikely to be associated with GW170814. Our search finds no candidates associated with GW170814, disfavoring rapidly declining optical emission from BBH mergers brighter than i ~ 23 mag (L optical ~ 5 × 1041 erg s-1) 1–2 days after coalescence. In terms of GW sky map coverage, this is the most complete search for optical counterparts to BBH mergers to date.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/ab08a3},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 873,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {3}
}

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