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Title: Cost of automotive lithium-ion batteries operating at high upper cutoff voltages

Abstract

Here, the potential for operating automotive battery packs at high upper cutoff voltages (UCV) has been explored using preliminary data on eight cathode materials. The pack level energy density, specific energy, and battery cost are calculated using the spreadsheet tool BatPaC. The tool used experimental data for some cathode materials such as the lithiated oxides of nickel manganese cobalt (NMC), nickel cobalt aluminum (NCA), layered lithium- and manganese-rich nickel manganese cobalt (LMRNMC). The half-cell data were obtained at UCVs between 4.2 and 4.7 V vs. Li/Li+. The experimental data showed LMRNMC with the highest lithiation capacity gain, increasing from 176 mAh·g–1 at 4.2 V to 260 mAh·g–1 at 4.7 V; this advantage is partly offset by its lower average voltage. Assuming optimized cell materials/design and an area-specific impedance of 12 Ω•cm2 for all the materials, the BatPaC results indicate that the specific energies or energy densities of the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) battery packs with the LMRNMC and NMC cathodes can exceed 180 (BEV) and 160 (PHEV) Wh·kg–1 at UCV>4.6 V vs. Li/Li+. The costs of these battery packs are lowest at UCV = 4.7 V (vs. Li/Li+); estimated at 135–145 and 210–220 $·kWh–1more » for BEV and PHEV packs, respectively.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1488410
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1636542
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 403; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; Upper cutoff voltage; battery cost; cathode; high-energy high-voltage; lithium ion battery cost; specific energy

Citation Formats

Ahmed, Shabbir, Trask, Stephen E., Dees, Dennis W., Nelson, Paul A., Lu, Wenquan, Dunlop, Alison R., Polzin, Bryant J., and Jansen, Andrew N. Cost of automotive lithium-ion batteries operating at high upper cutoff voltages. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.09.037.
Ahmed, Shabbir, Trask, Stephen E., Dees, Dennis W., Nelson, Paul A., Lu, Wenquan, Dunlop, Alison R., Polzin, Bryant J., & Jansen, Andrew N. Cost of automotive lithium-ion batteries operating at high upper cutoff voltages. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.09.037.
Ahmed, Shabbir, Trask, Stephen E., Dees, Dennis W., Nelson, Paul A., Lu, Wenquan, Dunlop, Alison R., Polzin, Bryant J., and Jansen, Andrew N. Fri . "Cost of automotive lithium-ion batteries operating at high upper cutoff voltages". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.09.037. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1488410.
@article{osti_1488410,
title = {Cost of automotive lithium-ion batteries operating at high upper cutoff voltages},
author = {Ahmed, Shabbir and Trask, Stephen E. and Dees, Dennis W. and Nelson, Paul A. and Lu, Wenquan and Dunlop, Alison R. and Polzin, Bryant J. and Jansen, Andrew N.},
abstractNote = {Here, the potential for operating automotive battery packs at high upper cutoff voltages (UCV) has been explored using preliminary data on eight cathode materials. The pack level energy density, specific energy, and battery cost are calculated using the spreadsheet tool BatPaC. The tool used experimental data for some cathode materials such as the lithiated oxides of nickel manganese cobalt (NMC), nickel cobalt aluminum (NCA), layered lithium- and manganese-rich nickel manganese cobalt (LMRNMC). The half-cell data were obtained at UCVs between 4.2 and 4.7 V vs. Li/Li+. The experimental data showed LMRNMC with the highest lithiation capacity gain, increasing from 176 mAh·g–1 at 4.2 V to 260 mAh·g–1 at 4.7 V; this advantage is partly offset by its lower average voltage. Assuming optimized cell materials/design and an area-specific impedance of 12 Ω•cm2 for all the materials, the BatPaC results indicate that the specific energies or energy densities of the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) battery packs with the LMRNMC and NMC cathodes can exceed 180 (BEV) and 160 (PHEV) Wh·kg–1 at UCV>4.6 V vs. Li/Li+. The costs of these battery packs are lowest at UCV = 4.7 V (vs. Li/Li+); estimated at 135–145 and 210–220 $·kWh–1 for BEV and PHEV packs, respectively.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.09.037},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = C,
volume = 403,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

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