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Title: Silicon-Phosphorene Nanocavity-Enhanced Optical Emission at Telecommunications Wavelengths

Abstract

Generating and amplifying light in silicon (Si) continues to attract significant attention due to the possibility of integrating optical and electronic components in a single material platform. Unfortunately, silicon is an indirect band gap material and therefore an inefficient emitter of light. With the rise of integrated photonics, the search for silicon-based light sources has evolved from a scientific quest to a major technological bottleneck for scalable, CMOS-compatible, light sources. Recently, emerging two-dimensional materials have opened the prospect of tailoring material properties based on atomic layers. Few-layer phosphorene, which is isolated through exfoliation from black phosphorus (BP), is a great candidate to partner with silicon due to its layer-tunable direct band gap in the near-infrared where silicon is transparent. Here we demonstrate a hybrid silicon optical emitter composed of few-layer phosphorene nanomaterial flakes coupled to silicon photonic crystal resonators. We show single-mode emission in the telecommunications band of 1.55 μm ($$E_g$$ = 0.8 eV) under continuous wave optical excitation at room temperature. The solution-processed few-layer BP flakes enable tunable emission across a broad range of wavelengths and the simultaneous creation of multiple devices. Our work highlights the versatility of the Si-BP material platform for creating optically active devices in integrated silicon chips.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [2];  [6]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials
  2. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  3. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris (France). Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies
  4. Thales Research and Technology, Palaiseau (France)
  5. Thales Research and Technology, Palaiseau (France)
  6. Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Bât. 220, 91405 Orsay cedex, France
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1487134
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nano Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1530-6984
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Husko, Chad, Kang, Joohoon, Moille, Gregory, Wood, Joshua D., Han, Zheng, Gosztola, David, Ma, Xuedan, Combrié, Sylvain, De Rossi, Alfredo, Hersam, Mark C., Checoury, Xavier, and Guest, Jeffrey R. Silicon-Phosphorene Nanocavity-Enhanced Optical Emission at Telecommunications Wavelengths. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b03037.
Husko, Chad, Kang, Joohoon, Moille, Gregory, Wood, Joshua D., Han, Zheng, Gosztola, David, Ma, Xuedan, Combrié, Sylvain, De Rossi, Alfredo, Hersam, Mark C., Checoury, Xavier, & Guest, Jeffrey R. Silicon-Phosphorene Nanocavity-Enhanced Optical Emission at Telecommunications Wavelengths. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b03037.
Husko, Chad, Kang, Joohoon, Moille, Gregory, Wood, Joshua D., Han, Zheng, Gosztola, David, Ma, Xuedan, Combrié, Sylvain, De Rossi, Alfredo, Hersam, Mark C., Checoury, Xavier, and Guest, Jeffrey R. Tue . "Silicon-Phosphorene Nanocavity-Enhanced Optical Emission at Telecommunications Wavelengths". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b03037. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1487134.
@article{osti_1487134,
title = {Silicon-Phosphorene Nanocavity-Enhanced Optical Emission at Telecommunications Wavelengths},
author = {Husko, Chad and Kang, Joohoon and Moille, Gregory and Wood, Joshua D. and Han, Zheng and Gosztola, David and Ma, Xuedan and Combrié, Sylvain and De Rossi, Alfredo and Hersam, Mark C. and Checoury, Xavier and Guest, Jeffrey R.},
abstractNote = {Generating and amplifying light in silicon (Si) continues to attract significant attention due to the possibility of integrating optical and electronic components in a single material platform. Unfortunately, silicon is an indirect band gap material and therefore an inefficient emitter of light. With the rise of integrated photonics, the search for silicon-based light sources has evolved from a scientific quest to a major technological bottleneck for scalable, CMOS-compatible, light sources. Recently, emerging two-dimensional materials have opened the prospect of tailoring material properties based on atomic layers. Few-layer phosphorene, which is isolated through exfoliation from black phosphorus (BP), is a great candidate to partner with silicon due to its layer-tunable direct band gap in the near-infrared where silicon is transparent. Here we demonstrate a hybrid silicon optical emitter composed of few-layer phosphorene nanomaterial flakes coupled to silicon photonic crystal resonators. We show single-mode emission in the telecommunications band of 1.55 μm ($E_g$ = 0.8 eV) under continuous wave optical excitation at room temperature. The solution-processed few-layer BP flakes enable tunable emission across a broad range of wavelengths and the simultaneous creation of multiple devices. Our work highlights the versatility of the Si-BP material platform for creating optically active devices in integrated silicon chips.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b03037},
journal = {Nano Letters},
number = 10,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Hybrid Si-BP nanoscale light emitters. (a) Schematic of the hybrid siliconphosphorene device. Light emitted from the few nanometer BP flakes is coupled to the silicon optical resonator (thickness 220 nm). The fundamental mode of the cavity is in the x-y plane. We collect light scattered from the cavitymore » in the z-direction. Inset, atomic structure of different thicknesses of few-layer BP. (b) Optical microscope image of our hybrid device. The BP flakes cover multiple PhC devices on the silicon chip. (c) Atomic force microscopy image of a hybrid device with silicon PhC and BP emitter material. (d) Thickness distribution of the nanomaterial flakes composing the BP layer measured by AFM. (e),(f) FDTD simulation showing the optical resonator mode of near-diffraction limited volume in the x-yplane (e) and y-z plane (f). The evanescent field in the silicon resonator couples to the BP on the surface. (g) Scaled cavity emission spectrum (blue line) compared to native photoluminescence signal from the two different thickness distributions of the few-layer BP flakes (black lines).« less

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