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Title: Revealing particle-scale powder spreading dynamics in powder-bed-based additive manufacturing process by high-speed x-ray imaging

Abstract

Powder spreading is a key step in the powder-bed-based additive manufacturing process, which determines the quality of the powder bed and, consequently, affects the quality of the manufactured part. However, powder spreading behavior under additive manufacturing condition is still not clear, largely because of the lack of particle-scale experimental study. Here, we studied particle-scale powder dynamics during the powder spreading process by using in-situ high-speed high-energy x-ray imaging. Evolution of the repose angle, slope surface speed, slope surface roughness, and the dynamics of powder clusters at the powder front were revealed and quantified. Interactions of the individual metal powders, with boundaries (substrate and container wall), were characterized, and coefficients of friction between the powders and boundaries were calculated. The effects of particle size on powder flow dynamics were revealed. Here, the particle scale powder spreading dynamics, reported here, are important for a thorough understanding of powder spreading behavior in the powder-bed-based additive manufacturing process, and are critical to the development and validation of models that can more accurately predict powder spreading behavior.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  3. Dept. of Energy’s Kansas City National Security Campus Managed by Honeywell FM&T, Kansas City, MO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Science Foundation (NSF); Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, LLC; USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1487034
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; additive manufacturing; x-ray imaging; powder spreading

Citation Formats

Escano, Luis I., Parab, Niranjan D., Xiong, Lianghua, Guo, Qilin, Zhao, Cang, Fezzaa, Kamel, Everhart, Wes, Sun, Tao, and Chen, Lianyi. Revealing particle-scale powder spreading dynamics in powder-bed-based additive manufacturing process by high-speed x-ray imaging. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-33376-0.
Escano, Luis I., Parab, Niranjan D., Xiong, Lianghua, Guo, Qilin, Zhao, Cang, Fezzaa, Kamel, Everhart, Wes, Sun, Tao, & Chen, Lianyi. Revealing particle-scale powder spreading dynamics in powder-bed-based additive manufacturing process by high-speed x-ray imaging. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-33376-0.
Escano, Luis I., Parab, Niranjan D., Xiong, Lianghua, Guo, Qilin, Zhao, Cang, Fezzaa, Kamel, Everhart, Wes, Sun, Tao, and Chen, Lianyi. Wed . "Revealing particle-scale powder spreading dynamics in powder-bed-based additive manufacturing process by high-speed x-ray imaging". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-33376-0. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1487034.
@article{osti_1487034,
title = {Revealing particle-scale powder spreading dynamics in powder-bed-based additive manufacturing process by high-speed x-ray imaging},
author = {Escano, Luis I. and Parab, Niranjan D. and Xiong, Lianghua and Guo, Qilin and Zhao, Cang and Fezzaa, Kamel and Everhart, Wes and Sun, Tao and Chen, Lianyi},
abstractNote = {Powder spreading is a key step in the powder-bed-based additive manufacturing process, which determines the quality of the powder bed and, consequently, affects the quality of the manufactured part. However, powder spreading behavior under additive manufacturing condition is still not clear, largely because of the lack of particle-scale experimental study. Here, we studied particle-scale powder dynamics during the powder spreading process by using in-situ high-speed high-energy x-ray imaging. Evolution of the repose angle, slope surface speed, slope surface roughness, and the dynamics of powder clusters at the powder front were revealed and quantified. Interactions of the individual metal powders, with boundaries (substrate and container wall), were characterized, and coefficients of friction between the powders and boundaries were calculated. The effects of particle size on powder flow dynamics were revealed. Here, the particle scale powder spreading dynamics, reported here, are important for a thorough understanding of powder spreading behavior in the powder-bed-based additive manufacturing process, and are critical to the development and validation of models that can more accurately predict powder spreading behavior.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-018-33376-0},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

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Cited by: 2 works
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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Schematic of the experimental set-up and particle size distributions of 316 L stainless steel powders. (a) Schematic of the experimental set-up for in-situ powder spreading high-speed x-ray imaging. (b,c) Powder size distributions for stainless steel powders with average particle diameters of 67 µm (b) and 23 µm (c).more » The experiments were carried out at the beamline 32-ID-B of the Advance Photon Source. The experiments were run under an ambient pressure of 1 atm. A rigid aluminum blade with a flat front was used as a wiper. Two rectangular confinement walls were attached to the spreading structure to prevent powders from flowing into path of the x-ray beam. The two powder bed container walls were made of high density graphite to ensure x-ray transparence, low friction and absence of static electric charge accumulation. The powder was spread over an aluminum substrate which was lowered through a z-axis motion stage to create the powder layer gap.« less

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.