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Title: Microstructure Analysis of Bismuth Absorbers for Transition-Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters

Abstract

Given its large X-ray stopping power and low specific heat capacity, bismuth (Bi) is a promising absorber material for X-ray microcalorimeters and has been used with transition-edge sensors (TESs) in the past. However, distinct X-ray spectral features have been observed in TESs with Bi absorbers deposited with different techniques. Evaporated Bi absorbers are widely reported to have non-Gaussian low-energy tails, while electroplated ones do not show this feature. In this study, we fabricated Bi absorbers with these two methods and performed microstructure analysis using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction microscopy. The two types of material showed the same crystallographic structure, but the grain size of the electroplated Bi was about 40 times larger than that of the evaporated Bi. Furthermore, this distinction in grain size is likely to be the cause of their different spectral responses.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [3];  [4];  [3];  [3];  [4]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  3. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)
  4. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Scientific User Facilities Division
OSTI Identifier:
1487025
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Low Temperature Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 193; Journal Issue: 3-4; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2291
Publisher:
Plenum Press
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; X-ray microcalorimeters; Bismuth; Electroplating; X-ray diffraction

Citation Formats

Yan, Daikang, Divan, Ralu, Gades, Lisa M., Kenesei, Peter, Madden, Timothy J., Miceli, Antonino, Park, Jun -Sang, Patel, Umeshkumar M., Quaranta, Orlando, Sharma, Hemant, Bennett, Douglas A., Doriese, William B., Fowler, Joseph W., Gard, Johnathon D., Hays-Wehle, James P., Morgan, Kelsey M., Schmidt, Daniel R., Swetz, Daniel S., and Ullom, Joel N. Microstructure Analysis of Bismuth Absorbers for Transition-Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s10909-018-1888-1.
Yan, Daikang, Divan, Ralu, Gades, Lisa M., Kenesei, Peter, Madden, Timothy J., Miceli, Antonino, Park, Jun -Sang, Patel, Umeshkumar M., Quaranta, Orlando, Sharma, Hemant, Bennett, Douglas A., Doriese, William B., Fowler, Joseph W., Gard, Johnathon D., Hays-Wehle, James P., Morgan, Kelsey M., Schmidt, Daniel R., Swetz, Daniel S., & Ullom, Joel N. Microstructure Analysis of Bismuth Absorbers for Transition-Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters. United States. doi:10.1007/s10909-018-1888-1.
Yan, Daikang, Divan, Ralu, Gades, Lisa M., Kenesei, Peter, Madden, Timothy J., Miceli, Antonino, Park, Jun -Sang, Patel, Umeshkumar M., Quaranta, Orlando, Sharma, Hemant, Bennett, Douglas A., Doriese, William B., Fowler, Joseph W., Gard, Johnathon D., Hays-Wehle, James P., Morgan, Kelsey M., Schmidt, Daniel R., Swetz, Daniel S., and Ullom, Joel N. Mon . "Microstructure Analysis of Bismuth Absorbers for Transition-Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters". United States. doi:10.1007/s10909-018-1888-1. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1487025.
@article{osti_1487025,
title = {Microstructure Analysis of Bismuth Absorbers for Transition-Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters},
author = {Yan, Daikang and Divan, Ralu and Gades, Lisa M. and Kenesei, Peter and Madden, Timothy J. and Miceli, Antonino and Park, Jun -Sang and Patel, Umeshkumar M. and Quaranta, Orlando and Sharma, Hemant and Bennett, Douglas A. and Doriese, William B. and Fowler, Joseph W. and Gard, Johnathon D. and Hays-Wehle, James P. and Morgan, Kelsey M. and Schmidt, Daniel R. and Swetz, Daniel S. and Ullom, Joel N.},
abstractNote = {Given its large X-ray stopping power and low specific heat capacity, bismuth (Bi) is a promising absorber material for X-ray microcalorimeters and has been used with transition-edge sensors (TESs) in the past. However, distinct X-ray spectral features have been observed in TESs with Bi absorbers deposited with different techniques. Evaporated Bi absorbers are widely reported to have non-Gaussian low-energy tails, while electroplated ones do not show this feature. In this study, we fabricated Bi absorbers with these two methods and performed microstructure analysis using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction microscopy. The two types of material showed the same crystallographic structure, but the grain size of the electroplated Bi was about 40 times larger than that of the evaporated Bi. Furthermore, this distinction in grain size is likely to be the cause of their different spectral responses.},
doi = {10.1007/s10909-018-1888-1},
journal = {Journal of Low Temperature Physics},
number = 3-4,
volume = 193,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Secondary electron cloud size for bulk Bi as a function of incident photon energy. The mean excitation energy used for calculation was 823 eV.

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