skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Making metals linear super-elastic with ultralow modulus and nearly zero hysteresis

Abstract

We demonstrate a novel materials design approach to achieve unprecedented properties by utilizing nanoscale chemo-mechanical coupling. In particular, by using computer simulations we demonstrate how to engineer ultralow modulus (12 GPa), nearly hysteresisfree, and linear super-elastic metals with a giant elastic strain limit (2.7%) by creating appropriate concentration modulations (CMs) at the nanoscale in the parent phase and by pre-straining to regulate the stress-induced martensitic transformation (MT). The nanoscale CMs created via spinodal decomposition produce corresponding phase stability modulations, suppress autocatalysis in nucleation, impose nano-confinements on growth, and hinder long-range ordering of transformation strain during the MT, which changes the otherwise sharp first-order transition into a smeared, macroscopically continuous transition over a large stress range. The pre-straining generates retained martensitic particles that are stable at the test temperature after unloading and act as operational nuclei in subsequent load cycles, eliminating the stress–strain hysteresis and offering an ultralow apparent Young’s modulus. Materials with a high strength and an ultralow apparent Young’s modulus have great potential for application in orthopaedic implants.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [2]
  1. Center of Microstructure Science, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
  2. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA
  3. Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
  4. Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC)
OSTI Identifier:
1486894
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1610547
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001258; DMR-1410322; DMR-1410636
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Materials Horizons
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Materials Horizons Journal Volume: 6 Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2051-6347
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Chemistry; Materials Science

Citation Formats

Zhu, Jiaming, Gao, Yipeng, Wang, Dong, Li, Ju, Zhang, Tong-Yi, and Wang, Yunzhi. Making metals linear super-elastic with ultralow modulus and nearly zero hysteresis. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1039/C8MH01141A.
Zhu, Jiaming, Gao, Yipeng, Wang, Dong, Li, Ju, Zhang, Tong-Yi, & Wang, Yunzhi. Making metals linear super-elastic with ultralow modulus and nearly zero hysteresis. United Kingdom. doi:10.1039/C8MH01141A.
Zhu, Jiaming, Gao, Yipeng, Wang, Dong, Li, Ju, Zhang, Tong-Yi, and Wang, Yunzhi. Mon . "Making metals linear super-elastic with ultralow modulus and nearly zero hysteresis". United Kingdom. doi:10.1039/C8MH01141A.
@article{osti_1486894,
title = {Making metals linear super-elastic with ultralow modulus and nearly zero hysteresis},
author = {Zhu, Jiaming and Gao, Yipeng and Wang, Dong and Li, Ju and Zhang, Tong-Yi and Wang, Yunzhi},
abstractNote = {We demonstrate a novel materials design approach to achieve unprecedented properties by utilizing nanoscale chemo-mechanical coupling. In particular, by using computer simulations we demonstrate how to engineer ultralow modulus (12 GPa), nearly hysteresisfree, and linear super-elastic metals with a giant elastic strain limit (2.7%) by creating appropriate concentration modulations (CMs) at the nanoscale in the parent phase and by pre-straining to regulate the stress-induced martensitic transformation (MT). The nanoscale CMs created via spinodal decomposition produce corresponding phase stability modulations, suppress autocatalysis in nucleation, impose nano-confinements on growth, and hinder long-range ordering of transformation strain during the MT, which changes the otherwise sharp first-order transition into a smeared, macroscopically continuous transition over a large stress range. The pre-straining generates retained martensitic particles that are stable at the test temperature after unloading and act as operational nuclei in subsequent load cycles, eliminating the stress–strain hysteresis and offering an ultralow apparent Young’s modulus. Materials with a high strength and an ultralow apparent Young’s modulus have great potential for application in orthopaedic implants.},
doi = {10.1039/C8MH01141A},
journal = {Materials Horizons},
number = 3,
volume = 6,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1039/C8MH01141A

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The Mechanics and Physics of Defect Nucleation
journal, February 2007


Effect of thermo-mechanical treatment on mechanical properties and shape memory behavior of Ti–(26–28)at.% Nb alloys
journal, November 2006


Effect of aging on martensitic transformation in γ-MnCu alloy
journal, June 2000


Ferrous Polycrystalline Shape-Memory Alloy Showing Huge Superelasticity
journal, March 2010


Design and mechanical properties of new β type titanium alloys for implant materials
journal, March 1998

  • Kuroda, Daisuke; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Morinaga, Masahiko
  • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 243, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0921-5093(97)00808-3

Titanium alloys in total joint replacement—a materials science perspective
journal, September 1998


Load-biased shape-memory and superelastic properties of a precipitation strengthened high-temperature Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 alloy
journal, April 2011


A Transforming Metal Nanocomposite with Large Elastic Strain, Low Modulus, and High Strength
journal, March 2013

  • Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Jiang, Daqiang
  • Science, Vol. 339, Issue 6124, p. 1191-1194
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.1228602

Crystallographic analysis and phase field simulation of transformation plasticity in a multifunctional β-Ti alloy
journal, February 2017


A universal symmetry criterion for the design of high performance ferroic materials
journal, April 2017


Taming martensitic transformation via concentration modulation at nanoscale
journal, May 2017


Martensitic transformation, shape memory effect and superelasticity of Ti–Nb binary alloys
journal, May 2006


Aerospace applications of shape memory alloys
journal, April 2007

  • Hartl, D. J.; Lagoudas, D. C.
  • Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol. 221, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1243/09544100JAERO211

Stress-Induced Cubic-to-Hexagonal Phase Transformation in Perovskite Nanothin Films
journal, July 2017


Ti based biomaterials, the ultimate choice for orthopaedic implants – A review
journal, May 2009


Phase Transformations of Nanocrystalline Martensitic Materials
journal, November 2009

  • Waitz, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Antretter, T.
  • MRS Bulletin, Vol. 34, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1557/mrs2009.231

Structural analysis of a new precipitate phase in high-temperature TiNiPt shape memory alloys
journal, August 2010


A review of shape memory alloy research, applications and opportunities
journal, April 2014


Beta TiNbSn Alloys with Low Young’s Modulus and High Strength
journal, January 2005


Composition dependent crystallography of α ″-martensite in Ti–Nb-based β-titanium alloy
journal, August 2007


Zur Theorie der Elastizit�tsgrenze und der Festigkeit kristallinischer K�rper
journal, July 1926


Ferroelastic Materials
journal, August 2012


Improvements in spinodal alloys from past to present
journal, December 2012


Giant Nonhysteretic Responses of Two-Phase Nanostructured Alloys
journal, March 2011


Free Energy of a Nonuniform System. I. Interfacial Free Energy
journal, February 1958

  • Cahn, John W.; Hilliard, John E.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 28, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1744102

Stress-induced nanoscale phase transition in superelastic NiTi by in situ X-ray diffraction
journal, May 2015


Real-space phase field investigation of evolving magnetic domains and twin structures in a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy
journal, November 2016

  • Wu, H. H.; Pramanick, A.; Ke, Y. B.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4967531

Kinetics of strain-induced morphological transformation in cubic alloys with a miscibility gap
journal, January 1993


Modeling Abnormal Strain States in Ferroelastic Systems: The Role of Point Defects
journal, November 2010


The Ti−V (Titanium-Vanadium) system
journal, June 1981

  • Murray, Joanne L.
  • Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02873703

Elastic deformation behaviour of Ti–24Nb–4Zr–7.9Sn for biomedical applications
journal, March 2007


Numerical Simulation of Intercalation-Induced Stress in Li-Ion Battery Electrode Particles
journal, January 2007

  • Zhang, Xiangchun; Shyy, Wei; Marie Sastry, Ann
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 154, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2759840

Heterogeneities and strain glass behavior: Role of nanoscale precipitates in low-temperature-aged Ti 48.7 Ni 51.3 alloys
journal, March 2013


Recent titanium R&D for biomedical applications in japan
journal, June 1999


Superelasticity and Tunable Thermal Expansion across a Wide Temperature Range
journal, August 2016


Physical metallurgy of Ti–Ni-based shape memory alloys
journal, July 2005


Ideal Pure Shear Strength of Aluminum and Copper
journal, October 2002


Ferroelectric polarization reversal via successive ferroelastic transitions
journal, October 2014

  • Xu, Ruijuan; Liu, Shi; Grinberg, Ilya
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4119

Compositionally graded metals: A new frontier of additive manufacturing
journal, August 2014

  • Hofmann, Douglas C.; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Roberts, Scott
  • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 29, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2014.208

Martensitic phase transformations in nanocrystalline NiTi studied by TEM
journal, January 2004


The stable and metastable Ti-Nb phase diagrams
journal, October 1988

  • Moffat, D. L.; Kattner, U. R.
  • Metallurgical Transactions A, Vol. 19, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02645466

Novel ultra-high straining process for bulk materials—development of the accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) process
journal, January 1999


On the mechanism of superelasticity in Gum metal
journal, February 2009


Strain glass and ferroic glass - Unusual properties from glassy nano-domains: Strain glass and ferroic glass
journal, September 2014


Tracing the coupled atomic shear and shuffle for a cubic to a hexagonal crystal transition
journal, May 2017


Titanium-Based Biomaterials for Preventing Stress Shielding between Implant Devices and Bone
journal, January 2011

  • Niinomi, M.; Nakai, M.
  • International Journal of Biomaterials, Vol. 2011
  • DOI: 10.1155/2011/836587

Influence of Ni on martensitic phase transformations in NiTi shape memory alloys
journal, May 2010


Design and fabrication of a metastable β-type titanium alloy with ultralow elastic modulus and high strength
journal, October 2015

  • Guo, Shun; Meng, Qingkun; Zhao, Xinqing
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep14688

The size of a dislocation
journal, January 1940


An origin of functional fatigue of shape memory alloys
journal, March 2017


Direct observation of hierarchical nucleation of martensite and size-dependent superelasticity in shape memory alloys
journal, January 2014


Magnetron sputtering: a review of recent developments and applications
journal, March 2000


Ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy films
journal, May 2015


Elastic properties of Ti–24Nb–4Zr–8Sn single crystals with bcc crystal structure
journal, May 2011