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Title: From Microparticles to Nanowires and Back: Radical Transformations in Plated Li Metal Morphology Revealed via in Situ Scanning Electron Microscopy

Abstract

We report that Li metal is the preferred anode material for all-solid-state Li batteries. However, a stable plating and stripping of Li metal at the anode–solid electrolyte interface remains a significant challenge particularly at practically feasible current densities. This problem usually relates to high and/or inhomogeneous Li-electrode–electrolyte interfacial impedance and formation and growth of high-aspect-ratio dendritic Li deposits at the electrode–electrolyte interface, which eventually shunt the battery. To better understand details of Li metal plating, we use operando electron microscopy and Auger spectroscopy to probe nucleation, growth, and stripping of Li metal during cycling of a model solid-state Li battery as a function of current density and oxygen pressure. We find a linear correlation between the nucleation density of Li clusters and the charging rate in an ultrahigh vacuum, which agrees with a classical nucleation and growth model. Moreover, the trace amount of oxidizing gas (≈10 –6 Pa of O 2) promotes the Li growth in a form of nanowires due to a fine balance between the ion current density and a growth rate of a thin lithium-oxide shell on the surface of the metallic Li. Interestingly, increasing the partial pressure of O 2 to 10 –5 Pa resumes Limore » plating in a form of 3D particles. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the importance of trace amounts of preexisting or ambient oxidizing species on lithiation processes in solid-state batteries.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  2. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)
  3. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
  4. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
  5. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1485830
Report Number(s):
SAND-2018-11517J
Journal ID: ISSN 1530-6984; 669387
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000; EE0007803; SC0001160
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nano Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1530-6984
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; all-solid-state batteries; carbon anode; In situ; lithium plating; scanning electron microscopy

Citation Formats

Yulaev, Alexander, Oleshko, Vladimir, Haney, Paul, Liu, Jialin, Qi, Yue, Talin, A. Alec, Leite, Marina S., and Kolmakov, Andrei. From Microparticles to Nanowires and Back: Radical Transformations in Plated Li Metal Morphology Revealed via in Situ Scanning Electron Microscopy. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04518.
Yulaev, Alexander, Oleshko, Vladimir, Haney, Paul, Liu, Jialin, Qi, Yue, Talin, A. Alec, Leite, Marina S., & Kolmakov, Andrei. From Microparticles to Nanowires and Back: Radical Transformations in Plated Li Metal Morphology Revealed via in Situ Scanning Electron Microscopy. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04518.
Yulaev, Alexander, Oleshko, Vladimir, Haney, Paul, Liu, Jialin, Qi, Yue, Talin, A. Alec, Leite, Marina S., and Kolmakov, Andrei. Sat . "From Microparticles to Nanowires and Back: Radical Transformations in Plated Li Metal Morphology Revealed via in Situ Scanning Electron Microscopy". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04518. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1485830.
@article{osti_1485830,
title = {From Microparticles to Nanowires and Back: Radical Transformations in Plated Li Metal Morphology Revealed via in Situ Scanning Electron Microscopy},
author = {Yulaev, Alexander and Oleshko, Vladimir and Haney, Paul and Liu, Jialin and Qi, Yue and Talin, A. Alec and Leite, Marina S. and Kolmakov, Andrei},
abstractNote = {We report that Li metal is the preferred anode material for all-solid-state Li batteries. However, a stable plating and stripping of Li metal at the anode–solid electrolyte interface remains a significant challenge particularly at practically feasible current densities. This problem usually relates to high and/or inhomogeneous Li-electrode–electrolyte interfacial impedance and formation and growth of high-aspect-ratio dendritic Li deposits at the electrode–electrolyte interface, which eventually shunt the battery. To better understand details of Li metal plating, we use operando electron microscopy and Auger spectroscopy to probe nucleation, growth, and stripping of Li metal during cycling of a model solid-state Li battery as a function of current density and oxygen pressure. We find a linear correlation between the nucleation density of Li clusters and the charging rate in an ultrahigh vacuum, which agrees with a classical nucleation and growth model. Moreover, the trace amount of oxidizing gas (≈10–6 Pa of O2) promotes the Li growth in a form of nanowires due to a fine balance between the ion current density and a growth rate of a thin lithium-oxide shell on the surface of the metallic Li. Interestingly, increasing the partial pressure of O2 to 10–5 Pa resumes Li plating in a form of 3D particles. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the importance of trace amounts of preexisting or ambient oxidizing species on lithiation processes in solid-state batteries.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04518},
journal = {Nano Letters},
number = 3,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

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