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Title: Employing a biochemical protecting group for a sustainable indigo dyeing strategy

Abstract

All rights reserved. Indigo is an ancient dye uniquely capable of producing the signature tones in blue denim; however, the dyeing process requires chemical steps that are environmentally damaging. Here, we describe a sustainable dyeing strategy that not only circumvents the use of toxic reagents for indigo chemical synthesis but also removes the need for a reducing agent for dye solubilization. This strategy utilizes a glucose moiety as a biochemical protecting group to stabilize the reactive indigo precursor indoxyl to form indican, preventing spontaneous oxidation to crystalline indigo during microbial fermentation. Application of a β-glucosidase removes the protecting group from indican, resulting in indigo crystal formation in the cotton fibers. We identified the gene coding for the glucosyltransferase PtUGT1 from the indigo plant Polygonum tinctorium and solved the structure of PtUGT1. Heterologous expression of PtUGT1 in Escherichia coli supported high indican conversion, and biosynthesized indican was used to dye cotton swatches and a garment.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering, and UC Berkeley-UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering
  2. Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering, and UC Berkeley-UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering; Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability
  4. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering; Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability
  5. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering; Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division
  6. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems & Engineering Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1485082
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Chemical Biology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1552-4450
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Hsu, Tammy M., Welner, Ditte H., Russ, Zachary N., Cervantes, Bernardo, Prathuri, Ramya L., Adams, Paul D., and Dueber, John E. Employing a biochemical protecting group for a sustainable indigo dyeing strategy. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/nchembio.2552.
Hsu, Tammy M., Welner, Ditte H., Russ, Zachary N., Cervantes, Bernardo, Prathuri, Ramya L., Adams, Paul D., & Dueber, John E. Employing a biochemical protecting group for a sustainable indigo dyeing strategy. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.2552
Hsu, Tammy M., Welner, Ditte H., Russ, Zachary N., Cervantes, Bernardo, Prathuri, Ramya L., Adams, Paul D., and Dueber, John E. Mon . "Employing a biochemical protecting group for a sustainable indigo dyeing strategy". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.2552. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1485082.
@article{osti_1485082,
title = {Employing a biochemical protecting group for a sustainable indigo dyeing strategy},
author = {Hsu, Tammy M. and Welner, Ditte H. and Russ, Zachary N. and Cervantes, Bernardo and Prathuri, Ramya L. and Adams, Paul D. and Dueber, John E.},
abstractNote = {All rights reserved. Indigo is an ancient dye uniquely capable of producing the signature tones in blue denim; however, the dyeing process requires chemical steps that are environmentally damaging. Here, we describe a sustainable dyeing strategy that not only circumvents the use of toxic reagents for indigo chemical synthesis but also removes the need for a reducing agent for dye solubilization. This strategy utilizes a glucose moiety as a biochemical protecting group to stabilize the reactive indigo precursor indoxyl to form indican, preventing spontaneous oxidation to crystalline indigo during microbial fermentation. Application of a β-glucosidase removes the protecting group from indican, resulting in indigo crystal formation in the cotton fibers. We identified the gene coding for the glucosyltransferase PtUGT1 from the indigo plant Polygonum tinctorium and solved the structure of PtUGT1. Heterologous expression of PtUGT1 in Escherichia coli supported high indican conversion, and biosynthesized indican was used to dye cotton swatches and a garment.},
doi = {10.1038/nchembio.2552},
journal = {Nature Chemical Biology},
number = 3,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

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Cited by: 22 works
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Figure 1 Figure 1: A glucosyl protecting group enables control over the timing and location of indigo dyeing

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font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2019-01-01">January 2019</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Wehrs, Maren; Gladden, John M.; Liu, Yuzhong</span> </li> <li> Green Chemistry, Vol. 21, Issue 12</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1039/c9gc00920e" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1039/c9gc00920e<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2019.1642330" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Isolation and characterization of a glycosyltransferase with specific catalytic activity towards flavonoids from <em>Tripterygium wilfordii</em><span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2019-07-24">July 2019</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Lu, Yun; Ma, Bao-Wei; Gao, Jie</span> </li> <li> Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Vol. 22, Issue 6</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2019.1642330" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1080/10286020.2019.1642330<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ery305" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">A novel glycosyltransferase catalyses the transfer of glucose to glucosylated anthocyanins in purple sweet potato<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2018-08-17">August 2018</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Wang, Hongxia; Wang, Chengyuan; Fan, Weijuan</span> </li> <li> Journal of Experimental Botany</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ery305" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1093/jxb/ery305<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14321" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Crystal structures of rhamnosyltransferase <scp>UGT</scp> 89C1 from <em>Arabidopsis thaliana</em> reveal the molecular basis of sugar donor specificity for <scp>UDP</scp> ‐β‐ <scp>l</scp> ‐rhamnose and rhamnosylation mechanism<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2019-04-22">April 2019</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Zong, Guangning; Fei, Shuang; Liu, Xiao</span> </li> <li> The Plant Journal</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14321" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1111/tpj.14321<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14514" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Phylogenomic analysis of UDP‐dependent glycosyltransferases provides insights into the evolutionary landscape of glycosylation in plant metabolism<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2019-10-06">October 2019</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Wilson, Alexander E.; Tian, Li</span> </li> <li> The Plant Journal, Vol. 100, Issue 6</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14514" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1111/tpj.14514<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1515/hsz-2019-0109" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Indigoid dyes by group E monooxygenases: mechanism and biocatalysis<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2019-06-26">June 2019</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Heine, Thomas; Großmann, Carolin; Hofmann, Sarah</span> </li> <li> Biological Chemistry, Vol. 400, Issue 7</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1515/hsz-2019-0109" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1515/hsz-2019-0109<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2019.00278" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Flavin Conjugated Polydopamine Nanoparticles Displaying Light-Driven Monooxygenase Activity<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2019-04-26">April 2019</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Crocker, Leander; Fruk, Ljiljana</span> </li> <li> Frontiers in Chemistry, Vol. 7</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2019.00278" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.3389/fchem.2019.00278<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201900400" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Cellular Biocatalysts Using Synthetic Genetic Circuits for Prolonged and Durable Enzymatic Activity<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2019-07-02">July 2019</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Ahan, Recep Erdem; Saltepe, Behide; Apaydin, Onur</span> </li> <li> ChemBioChem</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201900400" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1002/cbic.201900400<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.9033980" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Isolation and characterization of a glycosyltransferase with specific catalytic activity towards flavonoids from <i>Tripterygium wilfordii</i><span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">text</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2019-01-01">January 2019</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Lu, Yun; Ma, Bao-Wei; Gao, Jie</span> </li> <li> Taylor & Francis</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.9033980" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.6084/m9.figshare.9033980<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.17863/cam.39949" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Flavin Conjugated Polydopamine Nanoparticles Displaying Light-Driven Monooxygenase Activity.<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">text</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2019-01-01">January 2019</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Crocker, Leander; Fruk, Ljiljana</span> </li> <li> Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.17863/cam.39949" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.17863/cam.39949<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="sr-only">Previous Page</span><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a> <ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul> <a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="sr-only">Next Page</span><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All Cited By</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; 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border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1485082-img87170" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1485082-img87170"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">Figure 1 <small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 21)</small><span class="d-none type">figure</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1485082/image/000/125/0001256/3/t0087170.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 float-left biblio-image-tile" data-apporder="p. 22" data-order="2" data-imgid="1485082-img87172" data-imgsrc="/biblio/1485082/image/000/125/0001256/3/0087172.png" data-title="Figure 2" data-desc="The crystal structure of PtUGT1 with bound indoxyl sulfate (a) Overall GT-B fold of PtUGT1 (PDB ID 5NLM). The N-terminal Rossmann domain (blue) consists of a seven-stranded parallel β-sheet surrounded by nine α-helical segments, and the C-terminal Rossmann domain (red) consists of a six-stranded parallel β-sheet and five α-helices. The indoxyl sulfate bound in the active site is shown in stick representation. The structure is annotated with the four amino acids differing between PtUGT1 and PtUGT2 (arrows). (b) Electrostatic surface potential of PtUGT1. Colors show the electrostatic potential, from −5 $kT/e$ (red) to 5 $kT/e$ (blue). The view is rotated ~90° around the x axis with respect to a. Bound indoxyl sulfate is depicted in stick representation (black) together with the donor substrate UDP-glucose superposed from the homologous AtUGT72B1 complex structure (cyan, PDB ID 2VCE). (c) The acceptor binding site with the bound indoxyl sulfate and interacting residues shown in stick representation. The indoxyl sulfate omit map is displayed as a blue grid contoured at 3.0 σ. Interactions are depicted as dashed lines (black, salt bridge/hydrogen bond; gray, hydrophobic interaction; yellow, π-stacking). A black solid line indicates the distance from the catalytic histidine to the glucose-accepting oxygen. (d) In the proposed catalytic mechanism based on homology to other characterized UGTs29,31, H26 deprotonates the indoxyl hydroxyl group, which then performs an SN2 attack on the anomeric carbon of glucose. The conserved D122 is believed to balance the charge on the catalytic histidine29. Consistent with this hypothesis, D122 forms a 2.6 Å hydrogen bond to H26 in the present structure." data-ostiid="1485082" style="padding-bottom: 2em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1485082-img87172" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1485082-img87172"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">Figure 2 <small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 22)</small><span class="d-none type">figure</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1485082/image/000/125/0001256/3/t0087172.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 float-left biblio-image-tile" data-apporder="p. 23" data-order="3" data-imgid="1485082-img87173" data-imgsrc="/biblio/1485082/image/000/125/0001256/3/0087173.png" data-title="Figure 3" data-desc="Heterologous expression of PtUGT1 stabilizes indoxyl before it dimerizes, producing indican (a) Tryptophan is converted to indole by the native E. coli enzyme TnaA, oxygenated to indoxyl by FMO, and glucosylated by PtUGT1. A β-glucosidase hydrolyzes indican into indoxyl, which spontaneously oxidizes to indigo. (b) Expression of PtUGT1 reduces indigo formation in an FMO-expressing ΔbglA strain, but indigo precipitate forms upon addition of β-glucosidase. (c) Indican can be produced in a ΔbglA strain by heterologous expression of both FMO and PtUGT1, and titers improve with exogenous feeding of more tryptophan than the 20 mg/L present in EZ Rich media. Bars represent the mean of four biological replicates, and each replicate is represented by a circle." data-ostiid="1485082" style="padding-bottom: 2em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1485082-img87173" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1485082-img87173"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">Figure 3 <small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 23)</small><span class="d-none type">figure</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1485082/image/000/125/0001256/3/t0087173.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 float-left biblio-image-tile" data-apporder="p. 24" data-order="4" data-imgid="1485082-img87175" data-imgsrc="/biblio/1485082/image/000/125/0001256/3/0087175.png" data-title="Figure 4" data-desc="Production and growth curves for indican and indigo production (a–d) Titers of indican (a), indigo (b), and tryptophan (c), and cell count (d; measured as colony-forming units (CFU), see “Determination of cell count” in Online Methods) over a 37 h growth period. Cells expressing FMO and PtUGT1 are represented by orange; cells expressing only FMO are represented by blue; cells expressing neither gene are represented by gray. Error bars represent the mean ± s.d. of six (FMO + UGT) or four (FMO) independently grown colonies; circles represent individual independently grown colonies." data-ostiid="1485082" style="padding-bottom: 2em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1485082-img87175" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1485082-img87175"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">Figure 4 <small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 24)</small><span class="d-none type">figure</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1485082/image/000/125/0001256/3/t0087175.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 float-left biblio-image-tile" data-apporder="p. 25" data-order="5" data-imgid="1485082-img87176" data-imgsrc="/biblio/1485082/image/000/125/0001256/3/0087176.png" data-title="Figure 5" data-desc="Bio-indican can be used as an effective, reductant-free cotton textile dye (a) Top row, Pure indican with no β-glucosidase (BGL); pure indican with β-glucosidase; bio-indican with β-glucosidase. Bottom row, Indigo, nonreduced; indigo, reduced with sodium dithionite. All swatches are dyed on white cotton denim. Scale bar, 1 cm. (b) Scarf (100% white cotton gauze fabric) dyed with indican. All samples were photographed after numerous, vigorous water washes. Scale bar, 5 cm." data-ostiid="1485082" style="padding-bottom: 2em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1485082-img87176" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1485082-img87176"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">Figure 5 <small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 25)</small><span class="d-none type">figure</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1485082/image/000/125/0001256/3/t0087176.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-images" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All Images</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav ga-click-event" data-tab="biblio-images" data-filter="type" data-pattern="figure" data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image filter - figure"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> figures<small class="text-muted"> (5)</small></a></li> </ul> <div style="margin-top:2em;"> <form class="pure-form small text-muted image-search"> <label for="image-search-text" class="sr-only">Search</label> <input class="search form-control pure-input-1" id="image-search-text" placeholder="Search" style="margin-bottom:10px;" /> <fieldset> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort ga-click-event" name="images-sort" data-sort="name" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="image-search-sort-name" data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image sort - name"><label for="image-search-sort-name" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by figure / table title</label></div> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort ga-click-event" name="images-sort" data-sort="order" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="image-search-sort-date" data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image sort - order"><label for="image-search-sort-date" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by page order</label></div> </fieldset> <div class="text-left" style="margin-top:1.5em;margin-left:1em;"> <a href="" class="filter-clear clearfix" title="Clear filter / sort" style="font-weight:normal; float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> <div class="text-muted small" style="margin-top:2em; padding:1em;"> <em>Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.</em> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar Records in DOE PAGES and OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="3" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/115334-biosynthesis-indigo-using-recombinant-coli-development-biological-system-cost-effective-production-large-volume-chemical" itemprop="url">Biosynthesis of indigo using recombinant E. coli: Development of a biological system for the cost-effective production of a large volume chemical</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Conference</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Berry, A</span> ; <span class="author">Battist, S</span> ; <span class="author">Chotani, G</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Cost-effective production of any large-volume chemical by fermentation requires extensive manipulation of both the production organism and the fermentation and recovery processes. We have developed a recombinant E. coli system for the production of tryptophan and several other products derived from the aromatic amino acid pathway. By linking our technology for low-cost production of tryptophan from glucose with the enzyme naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO), we have achieved an overall process for the production of indigo dye from glucose. To successfully join these two technologies, both the tryptophan pathway and NDO were extensively modified via genetic engineering. In addition, systems were developed<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> to remove deleterious by-products generated during the chemical oxidations leading to indigo formation. Low-cost fermentation processes were developed that utilized minimal-salts media containing glucose as the sole carbon source. Finally, economical recovery processes were used that preserved the environmental friendliness of the biosynthetic route to indigo.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="4" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/22788359-fastness-properties-color-analysis-natural-indigo-dye-compatibility-study-different-natural-reducing-agents" itemprop="url">Fastness Properties and Color Analysis of Natural Indigo Dye and Compatibility Study of Different Natural Reducing Agents</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Hossain, Md. Delwar, E-mail: delwar@duet.ac.bd</span> ; <span class="author">Khan, Md. Mashiur Rahman</span> ; <span class="author">Uddin, Md. Zulhash</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Journal of Polymers and the Environment</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Conventional reduction process of indigo dyes with sodium dithionite produced lots of harmful byproducts and caused environmental pollution. A new reduction method should be introduced to textile dyer so that reduction can be less hazardous with low impact on the environment and energy resources. This study investigates an alternative reducing agent obtained from natural resources. Three different types of reducing agent are used, extracted from the Date palm, Banana and Apple by boiling method. To compare their effect on the reduction of the natural indigo dyestuff, different color fastness properties, pH and the color yield (K/S) were measured according to<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> the concentration of reducing agent and hydrated lime concentration. Outcomes show that K/S value varies with the amount of reducing agent. Average higher value shows from date palm among the three reducing agents at 25 °C & pH range 10.8–11. By using natural reducing agents, it can be possible to get satisfactory colorfastness and depth of shed compared to a synthetic reducing agent.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1007/S10924-016-0900-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="22788359" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >https://doi.org/10.1007/S10924-016-0900-6</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="5" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1839024-final-report-pace-producing-algae-coproducts-energy" itemprop="url">Final Report: PACE: PRODUCING ALGAE FOR COPRODUCTS AND ENERGY</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Technical Report</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Posewitz, Matthew</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">The PACE (Producing Algae for Co-Products and Energy) consortium was comprised of scientists from national laboratories (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory), research institutions (New Mexico Consortium), academic institutions (Arizona State University, Colorado School of Mines, Colorado State University, Washington State University) and private companies (Reliance Industries, PanPacific, Genifuel and Sonosop) dedicated to making process improvements in algal biotechnology, with an emphasis on renewable fuels and co-products from biomass. The scope of work was focused on improving algal cultivation and processing to achieve an overall energy return on investment (EROI) >3, a carbon index less than 55 grams<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> carbon dioxide per megajoule (gCO2/MJ) and a nearly two-fold reduction in fuel cost to $5 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (gge). The PACE project was originally focused on using two strains of Chlorella sorokiniana (Cs1412 and Cs1230), but later grew to encompass marine strains of Nannochloropsis and algal production strains from Reliance Industries Limited (RIL). A major emphasis of the project involved using genetic engineering to improve biomass yields, facilitate crop protection and enable co-product synthesis. Several notable successes in strain engineering were realized including: i) overexpression of a sugar signaling pathway regulator SnRK (Snf1-Related protein Kinase) in Chlorella sorokiniana that resulted in increased biomass and carbohydrate content, particularly when running simulated fall scripts in the laboratory; ii) the overexpression of a cyanobacterial fusion protein (fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase) that increased overall biomass accumulation of Nannochloropsis gaditana cultures in laboratory cultures, putatively by accelerating rate-limiting reactions in the Calvin cycle; iii) the expression of phosphite oxidase in Chlorella sorokiniana, which enabled this alga to use phosphite (instead of phosphate) as its sole P source, providing a novel crop protection strategy; and iv) the develop of genetically modified Chlorella sorokiniana capable of biosynthesizing phenylethanol (PEA) and/or phenylethanol glucoside (PEA-Glc) as value-added co-product(s), which were successfully attained by expressing three targets, phenylacetaldehyde synthase, phenylacetaldehyde reductase and, in some cases, UDP-glucosyltransferase. To test genetically modified (GM) algae outdoors, the PACE team in collaboration with Arizona State University pioneered establishing the process for gaining approval from the Environmental Protection Agency for TSCA Environmental Release Application (TERA) for the open release of GM algae field-trials and tested an SnRK overexpression cell line outdoors. The PACE team was given access to the world-class algal culturing facilities at Reliance Industries (RIL) in Gagva, India. Critical insights were provided into the productivities and process inputs that allowed this facility to attain seasonal average productivities of ~23 g/m2/d during the PACE project. This automated facility is capable of rapid strain screening, media optimization, harvesting and conversion to algal oil. Operational details from this facility were used for some aspects of the TEA/LCA analyses. RIL also provided the PACE team with 20 liters of algal oil from hydrothermal processing (HTP) that was upgraded to a diesel blend for engine testing. A two-stage HTP system was established that allowed the carbohydrate stream to be removed from algal biomass for co-product isolation and processing. The remaining biomass was then treated in a second HTP step that resulted in high-quality biocrude. Importantly, we demonstrated that undistilled, hydrotreated HTP fuel produced from algal biomass can be blended at levels of up to 5% with petroleum fuel without negatively affecting emissions and performance in a modern compression ignition engine. Using productivities attained from the RIL facility and modeling co-product production, Table 1 summarizes the LCA/TEA results against the PACE key targets for the PACE process used to produce biofuels and co-products, in this case, PEA and xanthan gum. Table 1. LCA/TEA (SOPO 2018) results against PACE key targets. PACE target Biocrude No offset $/gge Biocrude With offset <$5/gge EROI (biogas internal use) >3 gCO2/MJ biooil <55 TEA/LCA Results 6.81 4.79 2.9 59.95 These LCA/TEA results show that the biocrude cost with no offset is $6.81/gge and with offset is reduced to $4.79/gge. The EROI and carbon utilization goals fall just short of the targets. Continued improvements in productivity should not only reduce biocrude costs, but also enable higher co-product offsets against biocrude. The overall results for the co-product evaluation show the need for further investigations to identify suitable co-products for the specific process designs. They also highlight the need to optimize energy use in co-product extraction processes to improve outcomes for the EROI and carbon index. Significant lessons learned included: i) the importance of thoroughly testing and establishing the ability of algal species selected for study to compete and thrive in outdoor culturing testbeds, many highly promising laboratory strains are simply not competitive in outdoor scale-up testing; and ii) algal strain engineering can be a complex process that requires careful and highly reproducible protocols for the successful transfer of methodologies to new laboratories and “research hands”. In summary, the PACE project was able to i) advance genetic engineering approaches in algae to enable biomass improvements, potential crop protection, and co-product accumulation, ii) demonstrate a two-stage HTP prototype for carbohydrate removal, and co-product isolation in the first phase, followed by transformation of the remaining solids to high-quality biocrude in the second phase, iii) hydrotreat biocrude that could be effectively blended with petroleum diesel without prior fractionation, and iv) provide a roadmap toward less expensive and more efficient renewable fuels and co-products from algal biomass.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.2172/1839024" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1839024" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >https://doi.org/10.2172/1839024</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1839024" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1839024" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="6" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/10125611-community-geothermal-technology-program-cloth-dyeing-geothermal-steam-experiment-technology-transfer-from-japan-hawaii-final-report" itemprop="url">Community Geothermal Technology Program: Cloth dyeing by geothermal steam. An experiment in technology transfer from Japan to Hawaii, Final report</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Technical Report</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Furumoto, A S</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">This was an experiment to test whether cloth dyeing using geothermal steam (already proven in Japan) would be feasible in Hawaii. Results: Using a fabricated steam vat, cotton, silk, and synthetic can be dyed; the resulting material received high grades for steadfastness and permanency under dye testing. Techniques that were successful in Matsukawa, were replicated in Puna. However, attempts to embed leaf patterns on cloth using natural leaves and to extract natural dyes from Hawaiian plants were unsuccessful; the color of natural dyes deteriorated in hours. But chemical dyes gave brilliant hues or shades, in contrast to those in Japan<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> where the steam there gave subdued tones. It is concluded that geothermal dyeing can be a viable cottage industry in Puna, Hawaii.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.2172/10125611" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="10125611" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >https://doi.org/10.2172/10125611</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/10125611" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="10125611" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="7" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/484682-test-operations-procedure-top-permeation-penetration-air-permeable-semipermeable-impermeable-materials-chemical-agents-simulants-swatch-testing-final-report" itemprop="url">Test operations procedure (TOP) 8-2-501, permeation and penetration of air-permeable, semipermeable, and impermeable materials with chemical agents or simulants (swatch testing). Final report</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Technical Report</small><span class="authors"> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">This test operations procedure (TOP) provides the current standard for planning and conducting tests to measure the permeation or penetration of swatches of materials by chemical agents such as distilled mustard (HD), or the nerve agents sarin (GB), or V-agent (VX). The swatches may be single or multi-layered, inert, sorptive or reactive. Swatches may be taken from candidate or standardized fabrics, in which case application of this TOP can provide relative ranking or screening information about the ability of the standardized and/or candidate materials to resist permeation or penetration by chemical agents. Swatches may also be taken from garments that<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> are new, have been stored, or have been worn for various times under different conditions. Testing these material swatches using the procedures in the TOP can provide data to evaluate the effects of the different condition of wear. This TOP is not adequate for the assessment of the ability of an end item clothing made from any tested material to protect the wearer. The data obtained by these procedures cannot be correlated to field conditions. One or more of the test procedures given may be required in a detailed test plan (DTP).</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="hidden-xs">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/pages/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="sr-only">Facebook</span><em class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></em></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="sr-only">Twitter</span><em class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></em></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="sr-only">YouTube</span><em class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></em></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/pages/css/pages.fonts.220120.1828.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/pages/js/pages.220120.1828.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/pages.biblio.220120.1828.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script async�type="text/javascript" src="/pages/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript> </body> <!-- DOE PAGES v.220120.1828 --> </html>