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Title: Tidal Deformabilities and Radii of Neutron Stars from the Observation of GW170817

Abstract

In this study, we use gravitational-wave observations of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 to explore the tidal deformabilities and radii of neutron stars. We perform a Bayesian parameter estimation with the source location and distance informed by electromagnetic observations. We also assume that the two stars have the same equation of state; we demonstrate that, for stars with masses comparable to the component masses of GW170817, this is effectively implemented by assuming that the stars’ dimensionless tidal deformabilities are determined by the binary’s mass ratio q by Λ12 = q6. We investigate different choices of prior on the component masses of the neutron stars. We find that the tidal deformability and 90% credible interval is ˜Λ = 222$$+420\atop{-138}$$ for a uniform component mass prior, ˜Λ = 245$$+453\atop{-151}$$ for a component mass prior informed by radio observations of Galactic double neutron stars, and ˜Λ = 233$$+448\atop{-144}$$ for a component mass prior informed by radio pulsars. We find a robust measurement of the common areal radius of the neutron stars across all mass priors of 8.9 ≤ $$\hat{R}$$ ≤ 13.2 km , with a mean value of <$$\hat{R}$$> = 10.8 km . Finally, our results are the first measurement of tidal deformability with a physical constraint on the star’s equation of state and place the first lower bounds on the deformability and areal radii of neutron stars using gravitational waves.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)
  2. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
  3. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  4. Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1484643
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1467957
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-23911
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007; PRLTAO
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001; FG02-87ER40317
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 121; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

De, Soumi, Finstad, Daniel, Lattimer, James, Brown, Duncan A., Berger, Edo, and Biwer, Christopher Michael. Tidal Deformabilities and Radii of Neutron Stars from the Observation of GW170817. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.091102.
De, Soumi, Finstad, Daniel, Lattimer, James, Brown, Duncan A., Berger, Edo, & Biwer, Christopher Michael. Tidal Deformabilities and Radii of Neutron Stars from the Observation of GW170817. United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.091102
De, Soumi, Finstad, Daniel, Lattimer, James, Brown, Duncan A., Berger, Edo, and Biwer, Christopher Michael. Wed . "Tidal Deformabilities and Radii of Neutron Stars from the Observation of GW170817". United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.091102. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1484643.
@article{osti_1484643,
title = {Tidal Deformabilities and Radii of Neutron Stars from the Observation of GW170817},
author = {De, Soumi and Finstad, Daniel and Lattimer, James and Brown, Duncan A. and Berger, Edo and Biwer, Christopher Michael},
abstractNote = {In this study, we use gravitational-wave observations of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 to explore the tidal deformabilities and radii of neutron stars. We perform a Bayesian parameter estimation with the source location and distance informed by electromagnetic observations. We also assume that the two stars have the same equation of state; we demonstrate that, for stars with masses comparable to the component masses of GW170817, this is effectively implemented by assuming that the stars’ dimensionless tidal deformabilities are determined by the binary’s mass ratio q by Λ1/Λ2 = q6. We investigate different choices of prior on the component masses of the neutron stars. We find that the tidal deformability and 90% credible interval is ˜Λ = 222$+420\atop{-138}$ for a uniform component mass prior, ˜Λ = 245$+453\atop{-151}$ for a component mass prior informed by radio observations of Galactic double neutron stars, and ˜Λ = 233$+448\atop{-144}$ for a component mass prior informed by radio pulsars. We find a robust measurement of the common areal radius of the neutron stars across all mass priors of 8.9 ≤ $\hat{R}$ ≤ 13.2 km , with a mean value of <$\hat{R}$> = 10.8 km . Finally, our results are the first measurement of tidal deformability with a physical constraint on the star’s equation of state and place the first lower bounds on the deformability and areal radii of neutron stars using gravitational waves.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.091102},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 9,
volume = 121,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:

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Cited by: 87 works
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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: The tidal deformability Λ as a function of mass for physically realistic polytropes. A TOV integration with each EOS parameter set results in a series of values of Λ (m) that are shown as points colored by their radii R. Dashed curves are lower bounds to Λ formore » a given mass m which vary depending on the assumed lower limit to the neutron star maximum mass, mmax. All values of mmax produce the same upper bound.« less

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  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5117808

Distinguishing the nature of comparable-mass neutron star binary systems with multimessenger observations: GW170817 case study
journal, September 2019


Tidal deformabilities and neutron star mergers
journal, September 2018


Effects of spin on magnetized binary neutron star mergers and jet launching
journal, April 2019


LSST Target-of-opportunity Observations of Gravitational-wave Events: Essential and Efficient
journal, March 2019

  • Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Villar, V. A.; Scolnic, D. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 874, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab07b6

Evidence for a Multipolar Magnetic Field in SGR J1745-2900 from X-Ray Light-curve Analysis
journal, February 2020

  • de Lima, Rafael C. R.; Coelho, Jaziel G.; Pereira, Jonas P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 889, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab65f4

Searches for Continuous Gravitational Waves from 15 Supernova Remnants and Fomalhaut b with Advanced LIGO
text, January 2019


Future prospects for constraining nuclear matter parameters with gravitational waves
journal, July 2019


Probing up-down quark matter via gravitational waves
journal, February 2020


Post-Newtonian spin-tidal couplings for compact binaries
journal, November 2018


Detecting the Hadron-Quark Phase Transition with Gravitational Waves
journal, June 2019


Optimal Neutron-star Mass Ranges to Constrain the Equation of State of Nuclear Matter with Electromagnetic and Gravitational-wave Observations
journal, August 2019


A NICER View of PSR J0030+0451: Implications for the Dense Matter Equation of State
journal, December 2019

  • Raaijmakers, G.; Riley, T. E.; Watts, A. L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 887, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab451a

PSR J0030+0451 Mass and Radius from NICER Data and Implications for the Properties of Neutron Star Matter
journal, December 2019

  • Miller, M. C.; Lamb, F. K.; Dittmann, A. J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 887, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab50c5

NICER X-Ray Observations of Seven Nearby Rotation-powered Millisecond Pulsars
journal, December 2019

  • Guillot, Sebastien; Kerr, Matthew; Ray, Paul S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 887, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab511b