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Title: Surface waves affect frontogenesis

Abstract

Here, this paper provides a detailed analysis of momentum, angular momentum, vorticity, and energy budgets of a submesoscale front undergoing frontogenesis driven by an upper–ocean, submesoscale eddy field in a Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The LES solves the wave–averaged, or Craik–Leibovich, equations in order to account for the Stokes forces that result from interactions between nonbreaking surface waves and currents, and resolves both submesoscale eddies and boundary layer turbulence down to 4.9 m × 4.9 m × 1.25 m grid scales. It is found that submesoscale frontogenesis differs from traditional frontogenesis theory due to four effects: Stokes forces, momentum and kinetic energy transfer from submesoscale eddies to frontal secondary circulations, resolved turbulent stresses, and unbalanced torque. In the energy, momentum, angular momentum, and vorticity budgets for the frontal overturning circulation, the Stokes shear force is a leading–order contributor, typically either the second or third largest source of frontal overturning. These effects violate hydrostatic and thermal wind balances during submesoscale frontogenesis. The effect of the Stokes shear force becomes stronger with increasing alignment of the front and Stokes shear and with a nondimensional scaling. The Stokes shear force and momentum transfer from submesoscale eddies significantly energize the frontal secondary circulation alongmore » with the buoyancy.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)
  2. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1484630
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-15-29048
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9275
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 121; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9275
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Earth Sciences; Planetary Sciences; submesoscale; frontogenesis; waves; wave‐averaged equation; energy budget; LES

Citation Formats

Suzuki, Nobuhiro, Fox-Kemper, Baylor, Hamlington, Peter E., and Van Roekel, Luke P. Surface waves affect frontogenesis. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/2015JC011563.
Suzuki, Nobuhiro, Fox-Kemper, Baylor, Hamlington, Peter E., & Van Roekel, Luke P. Surface waves affect frontogenesis. United States. doi:10.1002/2015JC011563.
Suzuki, Nobuhiro, Fox-Kemper, Baylor, Hamlington, Peter E., and Van Roekel, Luke P. Thu . "Surface waves affect frontogenesis". United States. doi:10.1002/2015JC011563. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1484630.
@article{osti_1484630,
title = {Surface waves affect frontogenesis},
author = {Suzuki, Nobuhiro and Fox-Kemper, Baylor and Hamlington, Peter E. and Van Roekel, Luke P.},
abstractNote = {Here, this paper provides a detailed analysis of momentum, angular momentum, vorticity, and energy budgets of a submesoscale front undergoing frontogenesis driven by an upper–ocean, submesoscale eddy field in a Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The LES solves the wave–averaged, or Craik–Leibovich, equations in order to account for the Stokes forces that result from interactions between nonbreaking surface waves and currents, and resolves both submesoscale eddies and boundary layer turbulence down to 4.9 m × 4.9 m × 1.25 m grid scales. It is found that submesoscale frontogenesis differs from traditional frontogenesis theory due to four effects: Stokes forces, momentum and kinetic energy transfer from submesoscale eddies to frontal secondary circulations, resolved turbulent stresses, and unbalanced torque. In the energy, momentum, angular momentum, and vorticity budgets for the frontal overturning circulation, the Stokes shear force is a leading–order contributor, typically either the second or third largest source of frontal overturning. These effects violate hydrostatic and thermal wind balances during submesoscale frontogenesis. The effect of the Stokes shear force becomes stronger with increasing alignment of the front and Stokes shear and with a nondimensional scaling. The Stokes shear force and momentum transfer from submesoscale eddies significantly energize the frontal secondary circulation along with the buoyancy.},
doi = {10.1002/2015JC011563},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans},
number = 5,
volume = 121,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {5}
}

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Cited by: 17 works
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