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Title: 100 GW linear transformer driver cavity: Design, simulations, and performance

Abstract

Here we present details of the design, simulation, and performance of a 100-GW linear transformer driver (LTD) cavity at Sandia National Laboratories. The cavity consists of 20 “bricks.” Each brick is comprised of two 80 nF, 100 kV capacitors connected electrically in series with a custom, 200 kV, three-electrode, field-distortion gas switch. The brick capacitors are bipolar charged to ±100 kV for a total switch voltage of 200 kV. Typical brick circuit parameters are 40 nF capacitance (two 80 nF capacitors in series) and 160 nH inductance. The switch electrodes are fabricated from a WCu alloy and are operated with breathable air. Over the course of 6,556 shots the cavity generated a peak electrical current and power of 1.03 MA (±1.8%) and 106 GW (±3.1%). Experimental results are consistent (to within uncertainties) with circuit simulations for normal operation, and expected failure modes including prefire and late-fire events. New features of this development that are reported here in detail include: (1) 100 ns, 1 MA, 100-GW output from a 2.2 m diameter LTD into a 0.1 Ω load, (2) high-impedance solid charging resistors that are optimized for this application, and (3) evaluation of maintenance-free trigger circuits using capacitive coupling and inductivemore » isolation.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1484554
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1487418
Report Number(s):
SAND-2018-10283J
Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9888; PRABCJ; 120401
Grant/Contract Number:  
16-0870; 16-0912; NA0003525; AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Accelerators and Beams
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physical Review Accelerators and Beams Journal Volume: 21 Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9888
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

Citation Formats

Douglass, J. D., Hutsel, B. T., Leckbee, J. J., Mulville, T. D., Stoltzfus, B. S., Wisher, M. L., Savage, M. E., Stygar, W. A., Breden, E. W., Calhoun, J. D., Cuneo, M. E., De Smet, D. J., Focia, R. J., Hohlfelder, R. J., Jaramillo, D. M., Johns, O. M., Jones, M. C., Lombrozo, A. C., Lucero, D. J., Moore, J. K., Porter, J. L., Radovich, S. D., Romero, S. A., Sceiford, M. E., Sullivan, M. A., Walker, C. A., Woodworth, J. R., Yazzie, N. T., Abdalla, M. D., Skipper, M. C., and Wagner, C. 100 GW linear transformer driver cavity: Design, simulations, and performance. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.21.120401.
Douglass, J. D., Hutsel, B. T., Leckbee, J. J., Mulville, T. D., Stoltzfus, B. S., Wisher, M. L., Savage, M. E., Stygar, W. A., Breden, E. W., Calhoun, J. D., Cuneo, M. E., De Smet, D. J., Focia, R. J., Hohlfelder, R. J., Jaramillo, D. M., Johns, O. M., Jones, M. C., Lombrozo, A. C., Lucero, D. J., Moore, J. K., Porter, J. L., Radovich, S. D., Romero, S. A., Sceiford, M. E., Sullivan, M. A., Walker, C. A., Woodworth, J. R., Yazzie, N. T., Abdalla, M. D., Skipper, M. C., & Wagner, C. 100 GW linear transformer driver cavity: Design, simulations, and performance. United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.21.120401
Douglass, J. D., Hutsel, B. T., Leckbee, J. J., Mulville, T. D., Stoltzfus, B. S., Wisher, M. L., Savage, M. E., Stygar, W. A., Breden, E. W., Calhoun, J. D., Cuneo, M. E., De Smet, D. J., Focia, R. J., Hohlfelder, R. J., Jaramillo, D. M., Johns, O. M., Jones, M. C., Lombrozo, A. C., Lucero, D. J., Moore, J. K., Porter, J. L., Radovich, S. D., Romero, S. A., Sceiford, M. E., Sullivan, M. A., Walker, C. A., Woodworth, J. R., Yazzie, N. T., Abdalla, M. D., Skipper, M. C., and Wagner, C. Wed . "100 GW linear transformer driver cavity: Design, simulations, and performance". United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.21.120401.
@article{osti_1484554,
title = {100 GW linear transformer driver cavity: Design, simulations, and performance},
author = {Douglass, J. D. and Hutsel, B. T. and Leckbee, J. J. and Mulville, T. D. and Stoltzfus, B. S. and Wisher, M. L. and Savage, M. E. and Stygar, W. A. and Breden, E. W. and Calhoun, J. D. and Cuneo, M. E. and De Smet, D. J. and Focia, R. J. and Hohlfelder, R. J. and Jaramillo, D. M. and Johns, O. M. and Jones, M. C. and Lombrozo, A. C. and Lucero, D. J. and Moore, J. K. and Porter, J. L. and Radovich, S. D. and Romero, S. A. and Sceiford, M. E. and Sullivan, M. A. and Walker, C. A. and Woodworth, J. R. and Yazzie, N. T. and Abdalla, M. D. and Skipper, M. C. and Wagner, C.},
abstractNote = {Here we present details of the design, simulation, and performance of a 100-GW linear transformer driver (LTD) cavity at Sandia National Laboratories. The cavity consists of 20 “bricks.” Each brick is comprised of two 80 nF, 100 kV capacitors connected electrically in series with a custom, 200 kV, three-electrode, field-distortion gas switch. The brick capacitors are bipolar charged to ±100 kV for a total switch voltage of 200 kV. Typical brick circuit parameters are 40 nF capacitance (two 80 nF capacitors in series) and 160 nH inductance. The switch electrodes are fabricated from a WCu alloy and are operated with breathable air. Over the course of 6,556 shots the cavity generated a peak electrical current and power of 1.03 MA (±1.8%) and 106 GW (±3.1%). Experimental results are consistent (to within uncertainties) with circuit simulations for normal operation, and expected failure modes including prefire and late-fire events. New features of this development that are reported here in detail include: (1) 100 ns, 1 MA, 100-GW output from a 2.2 m diameter LTD into a 0.1 Ω load, (2) high-impedance solid charging resistors that are optimized for this application, and (3) evaluation of maintenance-free trigger circuits using capacitive coupling and inductive isolation.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.21.120401},
journal = {Physical Review Accelerators and Beams},
number = 12,
volume = 21,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: Top-down illustration of the 100 GW "Z-Next" LTD with top lid and insulator removed. The right half of the illustration shows internal trigger circuitry with capacitive coupling (charging circuitry not shown), details are given in Fig. 5. The rest of the illustration shows details of the charging circuitmore » (internal trigger circuitry not shown) that is described in Sec. II A. Fasteners and seals are omitted from this illustration. Component materials follow the legends shown in Figs. 2 and 5.« less

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