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Title: When ‘smaller is stronger’ no longer holds

Abstract

‘Smaller is stronger’ has been a well-established tenet for the mechanical strength of small-volume single crystals. However, emerging evidence suggests that this trend does not always hold in the deep sub-micrometre regime (<~10 2 nm) when surface-mediated displacive and diffusive processes dominate. Here we present a perspective to highlight typical scenarios in which the single-crystal strength is influenced by surface stresses, diffusion-mediated surface creep, or dislocation-starvation-engendered high-stresses in the crystal interior, leading to ‘smaller is weaker’ or ‘plateau limited by ideal strength’. Such an unusual size dependence/independence of strength has implications for the reliability and stability of nano-structured devices. Due to significant surface effects, single crystals in the deep sub-micron regime (<~10 2 nm) can be ‘smaller is weaker’ or reach a ‘saturated strength plateau’, defying the well-known ‘smaller is stronger’ trend.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division
OSTI Identifier:
1483310
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1506651
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-03ER46056
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Materials Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2166-3831
Publisher:
Taylor and Francis
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ‘Smaller is weaker’; surface stresses; surface dislocation nucleation; surface creep; surface passivation

Citation Formats

Li, Qing-Jie, and Ma, Evan. When ‘smaller is stronger’ no longer holds. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1080/21663831.2018.1446192.
Li, Qing-Jie, & Ma, Evan. When ‘smaller is stronger’ no longer holds. United States. doi:10.1080/21663831.2018.1446192.
Li, Qing-Jie, and Ma, Evan. Wed . "When ‘smaller is stronger’ no longer holds". United States. doi:10.1080/21663831.2018.1446192.
@article{osti_1483310,
title = {When ‘smaller is stronger’ no longer holds},
author = {Li, Qing-Jie and Ma, Evan},
abstractNote = {‘Smaller is stronger’ has been a well-established tenet for the mechanical strength of small-volume single crystals. However, emerging evidence suggests that this trend does not always hold in the deep sub-micrometre regime (<~102 nm) when surface-mediated displacive and diffusive processes dominate. Here we present a perspective to highlight typical scenarios in which the single-crystal strength is influenced by surface stresses, diffusion-mediated surface creep, or dislocation-starvation-engendered high-stresses in the crystal interior, leading to ‘smaller is weaker’ or ‘plateau limited by ideal strength’. Such an unusual size dependence/independence of strength has implications for the reliability and stability of nano-structured devices. Due to significant surface effects, single crystals in the deep sub-micron regime (<~102 nm) can be ‘smaller is weaker’ or reach a ‘saturated strength plateau’, defying the well-known ‘smaller is stronger’ trend.},
doi = {10.1080/21663831.2018.1446192},
journal = {Materials Research Letters},
number = 5,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1080/21663831.2018.1446192

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Cited by: 3 works
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