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Title: Towards nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid by advanced KPFM techniques: a review

Abstract

Fundamental mechanisms of energy storage, corrosion, sensing, and multiple biological functionalities are directly coupled to electrical processes and ionic dynamics at solid–liquid interfaces. In many cases, these processes are spatially inhomogeneous taking place at grain boundaries, step edges, point defects, ion channels, etc and possess complex time and voltage dependent dynamics. This necessitates time-resolved and real-space probing of these phenomena. In this review, we discuss the applications of force-sensitive voltage modulated scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for probing electrical phenomena at solid–liquid interfaces. We first describe the working principles behind electrostatic and Kelvin probe force microscopies (EFM & KPFM) at the gas–solid interface, review the state of the art in advanced KPFM methods and developments to (i) overcome limitations of classical KPFM, (ii) expand the information accessible from KPFM, and (iii) extend KPFM operation to liquid environments. We briefly discuss the theoretical framework of electrical double layer (EDL) forces and dynamics, the implications and breakdown of classical EDL models for highly charged interfaces or under high ion concentrations, and describe recent modifications of the classical EDL theory relevant for understanding nanoscale electrical measurements at the solid–liquid interface. We further review the latest achievements in mapping surface charge, dielectric constants, and electrodynamicmore » and electrochemical processes in liquids. Lastly, we outline the key challenges and opportunities that exist in the field of nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid as well as providing a roadmap for the future development of liquid KPFM.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Univ. College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1483192
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Reports on Progress in Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 81; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-4885
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Kelvin probe force microscopy; scanning probe microscopy; liquid KPFM; solid liquid interface; electrostatic force microscopy; atomic force microscopy

Citation Formats

Collins, Liam, Kilpatrick, Jason I., Kalinin, Sergei V., and Rodriguez, Brian J. Towards nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid by advanced KPFM techniques: a review. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1088/1361-6633/aab560.
Collins, Liam, Kilpatrick, Jason I., Kalinin, Sergei V., & Rodriguez, Brian J. Towards nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid by advanced KPFM techniques: a review. United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6633/aab560.
Collins, Liam, Kilpatrick, Jason I., Kalinin, Sergei V., and Rodriguez, Brian J. Tue . "Towards nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid by advanced KPFM techniques: a review". United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6633/aab560. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1483192.
@article{osti_1483192,
title = {Towards nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid by advanced KPFM techniques: a review},
author = {Collins, Liam and Kilpatrick, Jason I. and Kalinin, Sergei V. and Rodriguez, Brian J.},
abstractNote = {Fundamental mechanisms of energy storage, corrosion, sensing, and multiple biological functionalities are directly coupled to electrical processes and ionic dynamics at solid–liquid interfaces. In many cases, these processes are spatially inhomogeneous taking place at grain boundaries, step edges, point defects, ion channels, etc and possess complex time and voltage dependent dynamics. This necessitates time-resolved and real-space probing of these phenomena. In this review, we discuss the applications of force-sensitive voltage modulated scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for probing electrical phenomena at solid–liquid interfaces. We first describe the working principles behind electrostatic and Kelvin probe force microscopies (EFM & KPFM) at the gas–solid interface, review the state of the art in advanced KPFM methods and developments to (i) overcome limitations of classical KPFM, (ii) expand the information accessible from KPFM, and (iii) extend KPFM operation to liquid environments. We briefly discuss the theoretical framework of electrical double layer (EDL) forces and dynamics, the implications and breakdown of classical EDL models for highly charged interfaces or under high ion concentrations, and describe recent modifications of the classical EDL theory relevant for understanding nanoscale electrical measurements at the solid–liquid interface. We further review the latest achievements in mapping surface charge, dielectric constants, and electrodynamic and electrochemical processes in liquids. Lastly, we outline the key challenges and opportunities that exist in the field of nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid as well as providing a roadmap for the future development of liquid KPFM.},
doi = {10.1088/1361-6633/aab560},
journal = {Reports on Progress in Physics},
number = 8,
volume = 81,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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