skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Towards nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid by advanced KPFM techniques: a review

Abstract

Fundamental mechanisms of energy storage, corrosion, sensing, and multiple biological functionalities are directly coupled to electrical processes and ionic dynamics at solid–liquid interfaces. In many cases, these processes are spatially inhomogeneous taking place at grain boundaries, step edges, point defects, ion channels, etc and possess complex time and voltage dependent dynamics. This necessitates time-resolved and real-space probing of these phenomena. In this review, we discuss the applications of force-sensitive voltage modulated scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for probing electrical phenomena at solid–liquid interfaces. We first describe the working principles behind electrostatic and Kelvin probe force microscopies (EFM & KPFM) at the gas–solid interface, review the state of the art in advanced KPFM methods and developments to (i) overcome limitations of classical KPFM, (ii) expand the information accessible from KPFM, and (iii) extend KPFM operation to liquid environments. We briefly discuss the theoretical framework of electrical double layer (EDL) forces and dynamics, the implications and breakdown of classical EDL models for highly charged interfaces or under high ion concentrations, and describe recent modifications of the classical EDL theory relevant for understanding nanoscale electrical measurements at the solid–liquid interface. We further review the latest achievements in mapping surface charge, dielectric constants, and electrodynamicmore » and electrochemical processes in liquids. Lastly, we outline the key challenges and opportunities that exist in the field of nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid as well as providing a roadmap for the future development of liquid KPFM.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Univ. College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1483192
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Reports on Progress in Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 81; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-4885
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Kelvin probe force microscopy; scanning probe microscopy; liquid KPFM; solid liquid interface; electrostatic force microscopy; atomic force microscopy

Citation Formats

Collins, Liam, Kilpatrick, Jason I., Kalinin, Sergei V., and Rodriguez, Brian J. Towards nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid by advanced KPFM techniques: a review. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1088/1361-6633/aab560.
Collins, Liam, Kilpatrick, Jason I., Kalinin, Sergei V., & Rodriguez, Brian J. Towards nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid by advanced KPFM techniques: a review. United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6633/aab560.
Collins, Liam, Kilpatrick, Jason I., Kalinin, Sergei V., and Rodriguez, Brian J. Tue . "Towards nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid by advanced KPFM techniques: a review". United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6633/aab560. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1483192.
@article{osti_1483192,
title = {Towards nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid by advanced KPFM techniques: a review},
author = {Collins, Liam and Kilpatrick, Jason I. and Kalinin, Sergei V. and Rodriguez, Brian J.},
abstractNote = {Fundamental mechanisms of energy storage, corrosion, sensing, and multiple biological functionalities are directly coupled to electrical processes and ionic dynamics at solid–liquid interfaces. In many cases, these processes are spatially inhomogeneous taking place at grain boundaries, step edges, point defects, ion channels, etc and possess complex time and voltage dependent dynamics. This necessitates time-resolved and real-space probing of these phenomena. In this review, we discuss the applications of force-sensitive voltage modulated scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for probing electrical phenomena at solid–liquid interfaces. We first describe the working principles behind electrostatic and Kelvin probe force microscopies (EFM & KPFM) at the gas–solid interface, review the state of the art in advanced KPFM methods and developments to (i) overcome limitations of classical KPFM, (ii) expand the information accessible from KPFM, and (iii) extend KPFM operation to liquid environments. We briefly discuss the theoretical framework of electrical double layer (EDL) forces and dynamics, the implications and breakdown of classical EDL models for highly charged interfaces or under high ion concentrations, and describe recent modifications of the classical EDL theory relevant for understanding nanoscale electrical measurements at the solid–liquid interface. We further review the latest achievements in mapping surface charge, dielectric constants, and electrodynamic and electrochemical processes in liquids. Lastly, we outline the key challenges and opportunities that exist in the field of nanoscale electrical measurements in liquid as well as providing a roadmap for the future development of liquid KPFM.},
doi = {10.1088/1361-6633/aab560},
journal = {Reports on Progress in Physics},
number = 8,
volume = 81,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 7 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Scanning ion conductance microscopy of living cells
journal, August 1997


Intermodulation atomic force microscopy
journal, April 2008

  • Platz, Daniel; Tholén, Erik A.; Pesen, Devrim
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2909569

A new Method of Measuring Contact Potential Differences in Metals
journal, July 1932

  • Zisman, W. A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 3, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1748947

Diffuse-charge effects on the transient response of electrochemical cells
journal, February 2010


Hierarchical porous carbons with controlled micropores and mesopores for supercapacitor electrode materials
journal, November 2008


The surface potential of the Si nanostructure on a Si (1 1 1) 7×7 surface generated by contact of a cantilever tip
journal, December 2002


Direct Mapping of Ion Diffusion Times on LiCoO2 Surfaces with Nanometer Resolution
journal, January 2011

  • Guo, S.; Jesse, S.; Kalnaus, S.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 158, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.3604759

Direct Force Measurements between Dissimilar Metal Oxides
journal, February 1995

  • Larson, Ian; Drummond, Calum J.; Chan, Derek Y. C.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 99, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/j100007a048

A review of non-DLVO interactions in environmental colloidal systems
journal, March 2002

  • Grasso*, D.; Subramaniam, K.; Butkus, M.
  • Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1023/a:1015146710500

Tip-induced band bending and its effect on local barrier height measurement studied by light-modulated scanning tunneling spectroscopy
journal, January 2006

  • Yoshida, Shoji; Kikuchi, Junichi; Kanitani, Yuya
  • e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, Vol. 4
  • DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2006.192

Charge injection in individual silicon nanoparticles deposited on a conductive substrate
journal, December 2002

  • Mélin, T.; Deresmes, D.; Stiévenard, D.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 81, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1532110

Atomic Force Microscopy: Imaging with Electrical Double Layer Interactions
journal, February 1994

  • Senden, Tim J.; Drummond, Calum J.; Kekicheff, Patrick
  • Langmuir, Vol. 10, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/la00014a004

Electric Polarization Properties of Single Bacteria Measured with Electrostatic Force Microscopy
journal, September 2014

  • Esteban-Ferrer, Daniel; Edwards, Martin A.; Fumagalli, Laura
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 8, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn5041476

Label-free identification of single dielectric nanoparticles and viruses with ultraweak polarization forces
journal, July 2012

  • Fumagalli, Laura; Esteban-Ferrer, Daniel; Cuervo, Ana
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 11, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3369

High-speed atomic force microscopy for nano-visualization of dynamic biomolecular processes
journal, November 2008


Surface Photovoltage of Porphyrin Layers Using the Kelvin Probe Technique
journal, October 1997

  • Moons, Ellen; Goossens, Albert; Savenije, Tom
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 101, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp971071w

Scanning capacitance microscopy
journal, February 1988


Visualization of Latent Fingerprint Corrosion of Metallic Surfaces
journal, July 2008


Charge Injection in High-κ Gate Dielectrics of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Transistors
journal, May 2012

  • McMorrow, Julian J.; Cress, Cory D.; Affouda, Chaffra A.
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 6, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn300672k

Electromechanical detection in scanning probe microscopy: Tip models and materials contrast
journal, July 2007

  • Eliseev, Eugene A.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 102, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2749463

Cyclic Voltammetry—“Electrochemical Spectroscopy”. New Analytical Methods(25)
journal, November 1984

  • Heinze, Jürgen
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English, Vol. 23, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.198408313

The role of the cantilever in Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements
journal, January 2011

  • Elias, George; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst
  • Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, Vol. 2
  • DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.2.29

Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy of Periodic Ferroelectric Domain Structure in KTiOPO 4 Crystals
journal, May 2002

  • Shvebelman, Maria M.; Agronin, Alex G.; Urenski, Ronen P.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 2, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl025523e

High-sensitivity quantitative Kelvin probe microscopy by noncontact ultra-high-vacuum atomic force microscopy
journal, July 1999

  • Sommerhalter, Ch.; Matthes, Th. W.; Glatzel, Th.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 75, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.124357

Derivation of the image interaction for non-planar pointed emitter geometries: application to field emission I–V characteristics
journal, April 1991


Double-Layer Mediated Electromechanical Response of Amyloid Fibrils in Liquid Environment
journal, January 2010

  • Nikiforov, M. P.; Thompson, G. L.; Reukov, V. V.
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 4, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn901127k

Visualization of charge propagation along individual pili proteins using ambient electrostatic force microscopy
journal, October 2014

  • Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Yalcin, Sibel Ebru; Tuominen, Mark T.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 9, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.236

A Scanning Probe Microscopy Based Assay for Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Metallicity
journal, April 2009

  • Lu, Wei; Xiong, Yao; Hassanien, Abdou
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 9, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl900194j

Imaging Surface Charges of Individual Biomolecules
journal, July 2009

  • Leung, Carl; Kinns, Helen; Hoogenboom, Bart W.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl9012979

Scanning-electrostatic-force microscopy: Self-consistent method for mesoscopic surface structures
journal, April 1998


The Imaging Mechanism of Atomic-scale Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy and its Application to Atomic-Scale Force Mapping
journal, November 2003

  • Okamoto, Kenji; Sugawara, Yasuhiro; Morita, Seizo
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 42, Issue Part 1, No. 11
  • DOI: 10.1143/jjap.42.7163

Hydration forces between mica surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions
journal, March 1981


Piezoelectric driven Kelvin probe for contact potential difference studies
journal, July 1976

  • Besocke, K.; Berger, S.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 47, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1134750

Modeling electrostatic force microscopy for conductive and dielectric samples using the boundary element method
journal, August 2008


Poisson–Boltzmann Description of the Electrical Double Layer Including Ion Size Effects
journal, December 2011

  • López-García, José Juan; Horno, José; Grosse, Constantino
  • Langmuir, Vol. 27, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1021/la2025445

Observation of stretched single DNA molecules by Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, March 2003


The drainage of thin liquid films between solid surfaces
journal, November 1985

  • Chan, D. Y. C.; Horn, R. G.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 83, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.449693

Nanoscale dielectric measurements from electrostatic force microscopy
journal, September 2014


Imaging Water Thin Films in Ambient Conditions Using Atomic Force Microscopy
journal, March 2016

  • Santos, Sergio; Verdaguer, Albert
  • Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.3390/ma9030182

Probing Surface and Bulk Electrochemical Processes on the LaAlO 3 –SrTiO 3 Interface
journal, April 2012

  • Kumar, Amit; Arruda, Thomas M.; Kim, Yunseok
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 6, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn204960c

Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment
journal, April 2014

  • Parsons, Drew F.; Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 140, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4871412

True Atomic Resolution by Atomic Force Microscopy Through Repulsive and Attractive Forces
journal, June 1993


Direct Probing of Charge Injection and Polarization-Controlled Ionic Mobility on Ferroelectric LiNbO 3 Surfaces
journal, November 2013

  • Strelcov, Evgheni; Ievlev, Anton V.; Jesse, Stephen
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304002

High-aspect ratio metal tips attached to atomic force microscopy cantilevers with controlled angle, length, and radius for electrostatic force microscopy
journal, November 2007

  • Cockins, Lynda; Miyahara, Yoichi; Stomp, Romain
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 78, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2805513

The partially reversible formation of Li-metal particles on a solid Li electrolyte: applications toward nanobatteries
journal, July 2012


Local measurement of semiconductor band bending and surface charge using Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, January 2005


Scanning tunnelling microscopy of semiconductor surfaces
journal, June 1996


Local dielectric spectroscopy of polymer films
journal, July 2007

  • Crider, P. S.; Majewski, M. R.; Zhang, Jingyun
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2753539

Preliminary results on the electrostatic double-layer force between two surfaces with high surface potentials
journal, April 1998

  • Raiteri, Roberto; Preuss, Markus; Grattarola, Massimo
  • Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 136, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/s0927-7757(97)00339-7

Latent fingermark visualisation using a scanning Kelvin probe
journal, April 2007


A review of atomic force microscopy imaging systems: application to molecular metrology and biological sciences
journal, October 2004


Nanoelectromechanics of Piezoresponse Force Microscopy: Contact Properties, Fields Below the Surface and Polarization Switching
journal, January 2003


FM demodulated Kelvin probe force microscopy for surface photovoltage tracking
journal, January 2005


High-Frequency Electromechanical Imaging of Ferroelectrics in a Liquid Environment
journal, May 2012

  • Balke, Nina; Jesse, Stephen; Chu, Ying-Hao
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 6, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn301489g

Surface forces: Changing concepts and complexity with dissolved gas, bubbles, salt and heat
journal, February 2017

  • Ninham, Barry W.; Pashley, Richard M.; Nostro, Pierandrea Lo
  • Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, Vol. 27
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.cocis.2016.09.003

Nanoscale Electromechanics of Ferroelectric and Biological Systems: A New Dimension in Scanning Probe Microscopy
journal, August 2007


Mapping Local Electrostatic Forces with the Atomic Force Microscope
journal, May 1997

  • Rotsch, Christian; Radmacher, Manfred
  • Langmuir, Vol. 13, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/la960874s

Measuring oxygen reduction/evolution reactions on the nanoscale
journal, August 2011

  • Kumar, Amit; Ciucci, Francesco; Morozovska, Anna N.
  • Nature Chemistry, Vol. 3, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nchem.1112

Electric force microscopy of individually charged nanoparticles on conductors: An analytical model for quantitative charge imaging
journal, January 2004


Quantitative Nanoscale Dielectric Microscopy of Single-Layer Supported Biomembranes
journal, April 2009

  • Fumagalli, Laura; Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 9, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl803851u

Measurement of induced surface charges, contact potentials, and surface states in GaN by electric force microscopy
journal, June 1999

  • Bridger, P. M.; Bandić, Z. Z.; Piquette, E. C.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 74, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.124148

Resolution enhancement and improved data interpretation in electrostatic force microscopy
journal, November 2001


Quantitative electrostatic force microscopy-phase measurements
journal, March 2004


Recent advances in high resolution scanning electrochemical microscopy of living cells – A review
journal, May 2013


Desalting by Means of Porous Carbon Electrodes
journal, January 1971

  • Johnson, A. M.; Newman, John
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 118, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2408094

Understanding the Atomic-Scale Contrast in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy
journal, July 2009


Quantitative theory for the imaging of conducting objects in electrostatic force microscopy
journal, October 2006

  • Sacha, G. M.; Gómez-Navarro, C.; Sáenz, J. J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2364862

An integrated AC electrokinetic pump in a microfluidic loop for fast and tunable flow control
journal, January 2004

  • Studer, Vincent; Pépin, Anne; Chen, Yong
  • The Analyst, Vol. 129, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1039/b408382m

Measuring local surface charge densities in electrolyte solutions with a scanning force microscope
journal, August 1992


Focused ion beam-nanomachined probes for improved electric force microscopy
journal, October 2005


Measuring adhesion, attraction, and repulsion between surfaces in liquids with an atomic-force microscope
journal, May 1992


CiteSpace II: Detecting and visualizing emerging trends and transient patterns in scientific literature
journal, January 2006

  • Chen, Chaomei
  • Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 57, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/asi.20317

Characterizing Materials with Cyclic Voltammetry
journal, December 1994


Editorial: Electrolytes and specific ion effects. New and old horizons
journal, June 2016


Dual frequency open-loop electric potential microscopy for local potential measurements in electrolyte solution with high ionic strength
journal, March 2012

  • Kobayashi, Naritaka; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 83, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3698207

Steric effects in the dynamics of electrolytes at large applied voltages. II. Modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations
journal, February 2007


Frequency dependent dynamical electromechanical response of mixed ionic-electronic conductors
journal, January 2012

  • Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Bravina, S. L.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3673868

Tracking speed bumps in organic field-effect transistors via pump-probe Kelvin-probe force microscopy
journal, December 2015

  • Murawski, J.; Mönch, T.; Milde, P.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4938529

Computed surface potential changes with membrane interaction
journal, June 1968


Double Layer of a Gold Electrode Probed by AFM Force Measurements
journal, February 2003

  • Barten, D.; Kleijn, J. M.; Duval, J.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 19, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/la0117092

High spatial resolution quantitative microwave impedance microscopy by a scanning tip microwave near-field microscope
journal, September 1997

  • Gao, Chen; Wei, Tao; Duewer, Fred
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 71, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.120444

Imaging mechanism of piezoresponse force microscopy of ferroelectric surfaces
journal, March 2002


Rapid mapping of polarization switching through complete information acquisition
journal, December 2016

  • Somnath, Suhas; Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13290

Experimental observation of induced-charge electro-osmosis around a metal wire in a microchannel
journal, October 2005

  • Levitan, Jeremy A.; Devasenathipathy, Shankar; Studer, Vincent
  • Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 267, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.06.050

Charging and discharging behavior in dielectric-coated MEMS electrodes probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, May 2012

  • Laboriante, Ian; Farrokhzad, Nassim; Fisch, Maxwell
  • Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 22, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/0960-1317/22/6/065031

Hydration forces between mica surfaces in electrolyte solutions
journal, July 1982


Band Excitation in Scanning Probe Microscopy: Recognition and Functional Imaging
journal, April 2014


Decoupling Electrochemical Reaction and Diffusion Processes in Ionically-Conductive Solids on the Nanometer Scale
journal, November 2010

  • Balke, Nina; Jesse, Stephen; Kim, Yoongu
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 4, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn101502x

Direct Visualization of Surfactant Hemimicelles by Force Microscopy of the Electrical Double Layer
journal, December 1994

  • Manne, S.; Cleveland, J. P.; Gaub, H. E.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 10, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/la00024a003

Oxygen chemisorption on copper single crystals
journal, August 1971


Geometric artefact suppressed surface potential measurements
journal, June 2006


Fuel Cells - Fundamentals and Applications
journal, May 2001


Review of mechanistic analysis by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
journal, October 1990


Kelvin probe force microscopy on III–V semiconductors: the effect of surface defects on the local work function
journal, September 2003


Use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the study of corrosion protection by polymer coatings
journal, March 1995

  • Mansfeld, F.
  • Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Vol. 25, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00262955

Micro- and nanotechniques to study localized corrosion
journal, July 1995


Electrochemical DNA sensors
journal, October 2003

  • Drummond, T. Gregory; Hill, Michael G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.
  • Nature Biotechnology, Vol. 21, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nbt873

Graphene-based nanomaterials for energy storage
journal, January 2011


Principles and applications of electrochemical capacitors
journal, May 2000


The development of bioelectrochemistry
journal, June 1996


Diffuse-charge dynamics in electrochemical systems
journal, August 2004


Steric effects in the dynamics of electrolytes at large applied voltages. I. Double-layer charging
journal, February 2007


X-ray-driven reaction front dynamics at calcite-water interfaces
journal, September 2015


Molecular Layering of Fluorinated Ionic Liquids at a Charged Sapphire (0001) Surface
journal, October 2008


Unravelling the electrochemical double layer by direct probing of the solid/liquid interface
journal, August 2016

  • Favaro, Marco; Jeong, Beomgyun; Ross, Philip N.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12695

Theory and Application of Cyclic Voltammetry for Measurement of Electrode Reaction Kinetics.
journal, October 1965


Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy
journal, July 2008


Scanning electrochemical microscopy in the 21st century
journal, January 2007

  • Sun, Peng; Laforge, François O.; Mirkin, Michael V.
  • Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1039/B612259K

Measurements within the diffusion layer using a microelectrode probe
journal, April 1986

  • Engstrom, Royce C.; Weber, Michael.; Wunder, Daniel J.
  • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 58, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/ac00295a044

Scanning electrochemical microscopy. Introduction and principles
journal, January 1989

  • Bard, Allen J.; Fan, Fu Ren F.; Kwak, Juhyoun.
  • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 61, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/ac00177a011

In-Situ Imaging of Ionic Crystal Dissolution Using an Integrated Electrochemical/AFM Probe
journal, January 1996

  • Macpherson, Julie V.; Unwin, Patrick R.; Hillier, Andrew C.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 118, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja960842r

Scanning electrochemical microscopy of a fuel-cell electrocatalyst deposited onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite
journal, September 2000


Scanning ion conductance microscopy of living cells
journal, August 1997


A New Approach to the High Resolution Electrodeposition of Metals via the Feedback Mode of the Scanning Electrochemical Microscope
journal, April 1990

  • Mandler, Daniel; Bard, Allen J.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2086606

Constant-Distance Mode Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy. Part II: High-Resolution SECM Imaging Employing Pt Nanoelectrodes as Miniaturized Scanning Probes
journal, January 2004

  • Ballesteros Katemann, Bernardo; Schulte, Albert; Schuhmann, Wolfgang
  • Electroanalysis, Vol. 16, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/elan.200302918

Atomic Force Microscope
journal, March 1986


Peer Reviewed: Atomic Force Microscopy Probes Go Electrochemical
journal, November 2002

  • Gardner, Catherine E.; Macpherson, Julie V.
  • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 74, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1021/ac0221482

Scanning electrochemical microscopy. 15. Improvements in imaging via tip-position modulation and lock-in detection
journal, July 1992

  • Wipf, David O.; Bard, Allen J.
  • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 64, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1021/ac00037a011

Combined Scanning Electrochemical−Atomic Force Microscopy
journal, January 2000

  • Macpherson, Julie V.; Unwin, Patrick R.
  • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 72, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/ac990921w

In-Phase Bias Modulation Mode of Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy With Capacitance Compensation
journal, October 2015

  • Li, Peng; Liu, Lianqing; Yang, Yang
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 62, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2015.2417126

Simultaneous Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy with Microchanneled Cantilevers
journal, December 2015


Practical aspects of Kelvin-probe force microscopy at solid/liquid interfaces in various liquid media
journal, October 2014

  • Umeda, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Kei; Oyabu, Noriaki
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 116, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4896881

Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in Nonpolar Liquids
journal, September 2012

  • Domanski, Anna L.; Sengupta, Esha; Bley, Karina
  • Langmuir, Vol. 28, Issue 39
  • DOI: 10.1021/la302451h

Kelvin probe force microscopy in liquid using electrochemical force microscopy
journal, January 2015

  • Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Kilpatrick, Jason I.
  • Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, Vol. 6
  • DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.6.19

Dual harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy at the graphene–liquid interface
journal, March 2014

  • Collins, Liam; Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 104, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4870074

Nanoscale potential measurements in liquid by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy
journal, December 2010

  • Kobayashi, Naritaka; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 81, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3514148

Quantitative potential measurements of nanoparticles with different surface charges in liquid by open-loop electric potential microscopy
journal, August 2011

  • Kobayashi, Naritaka; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 110, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3625230

Direct actuation of cantilever in aqueous solutions by electrostatic force using high-frequency electric fields
journal, September 2012

  • Umeda, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4754289

Probing charge screening dynamics and electrochemical processes at the solid–liquid interface with electrochemical force microscopy
journal, May 2014

  • Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Kilpatrick, Jason I.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4871

Nanoscale Measurement of the Dielectric Constant of Supported Lipid Bilayers in Aqueous Solutions with Electrostatic Force Microscopy
journal, March 2013


Nanoscale electric polarizability of ultrathin biolayers on insulating substrates by electrostatic force microscopy
journal, January 2015

  • Dols-Perez, A.; Gramse, G.; Calò, A.
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 7, Issue 43
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5NR04983K

Dynamic electrostatic force microscopy in liquid media
journal, November 2012

  • Gramse, G.; Edwards, M. A.; Fumagalli, L.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4768164

Theory of amplitude modulated electrostatic force microscopy for dielectric measurements in liquids at MHz frequencies
journal, September 2013


Visualizing Nanoscale Distribution of Corrosion Cells by Open-Loop Electric Potential Microscopy
journal, January 2016


Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, June 1991

  • Nonnenmacher, M.; O’Boyle, M. P.; Wickramasinghe, H. K.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 58, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.105227

Non-Contact AFM Imaging in Water Using Electrically Driven Cantilever Vibration
journal, May 2013

  • Marchand, David J.; Hsiao, Erik; Kim, Seong H.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 29, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1021/la4002797

Nanoscale dielectric measurements from electrostatic force microscopy
journal, September 2014


Scanning tunneling microscopy
journal, March 1983


Scanning tunneling microscopy—from birth to adolescence
journal, July 1987


Atomic Resolution of the Silicon (111)-(7x7) Surface by Atomic Force Microscopy
journal, January 1995


Surface Studies by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
journal, July 1982


Tunneling Spectroscopy and Inverse Photoemission: Image and Field States
journal, August 1985


An in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy study of au (111) with atomic scale resolution
journal, July 1988

  • Wiechers, J.; Twomey, T.; Kolb, D. M.
  • Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, Vol. 248, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0022-0728(88)85106-4

Scanning tunnelling microscopy studies of metal surfaces
journal, December 1996


High‐resolution capacitance measurement and potentiometry by force microscopy
journal, March 1988

  • Martin, Yves; Abraham, David W.; Wickramasinghe, H. Kumar
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 52, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.99224

Deposition and imaging of localized charge on insulator surfaces using a force microscope
journal, December 1988

  • Stern, J. E.; Terris, B. D.; Mamin, H. J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 53, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.100162

Contact electrification using force microscopy
journal, December 1989


Scanning impedance microscopy of electroactive interfaces
journal, February 2001

  • Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bonnell, Dawn A.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 78, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1350627

Scanning electromagnetic transmission line microscope with sub-wavelength resolution
journal, January 1989


Electrochemical strain microscopy: Probing ionic and electrochemical phenomena in solids at the nanometer level
journal, July 2012

  • Jesse, Stephen; Kumar, Amit; Arruda, Thomas M.
  • MRS Bulletin, Vol. 37, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1557/mrs.2012.144

Nanoscale mapping of ion diffusion in a lithium-ion battery cathode
journal, August 2010


Real Space Mapping of Li-Ion Transport in Amorphous Si Anodes with Nanometer Resolution
journal, September 2010

  • Balke, Nina; Jesse, Stephen; Kim, Yoongu
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 10, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl101439x

Imaging mechanism of piezoresponse force microscopy of ferroelectric surfaces
journal, March 2002


Switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy of ferroelectric materials
journal, February 2006

  • Jesse, Stephen; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2172216

Nanoscale Visualization and Control of Ferroelectric Domains by Atomic Force Microscopy
journal, May 1995


Strain Imaging of Lead-Zirconate-Titanate Thin Film by Tunneling Acoustic Microscopy
journal, May 1994

  • Keiji, Takata; Keiko, Kushida; Kazuyoshi, Torii
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 33, Issue Part 1, No. 5B
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.33.3193

Strain-imaging observation of a Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin film
journal, March 1996

  • Takata, Keiji
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 14, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.589167

Electrostatic force microscopy: principles and some applications to semiconductors
journal, November 2001


The band excitation method in scanning probe microscopy for rapid mapping of energy dissipation on the nanoscale
journal, September 2007


Band excitation in scanning probe microscopy: sines of change
journal, November 2011


Controlled Nanopatterning of a Polymerized Ionic Liquid in a Strong Electric Field
journal, December 2014

  • Bocharova, Vera; Agapov, Alexander L.; Tselev, Alexander
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402852

Bias controlled capacitive driven cantilever oscillation for high resolution dynamic force microscopy
journal, February 2013

  • Zhang, Jinjin; Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Shen, Yi
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4793205

Exploring Local Electrostatic Effects with Scanning Probe Microscopy: Implications for Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and Triboelectricity
journal, October 2014

  • Balke, Nina; Maksymovych, Petro; Jesse, Stephen
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 8, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn505176a

Quantification of in-contact probe-sample electrostatic forces with dynamic atomic force microscopy
journal, January 2017


Differentiating Ferroelectric and Nonferroelectric Electromechanical Effects with Scanning Probe Microscopy
journal, May 2015


G-mode magnetic force microscopy: Separating magnetic and electrostatic interactions using big data analytics
journal, May 2016

  • Collins, Liam; Belianinov, Alex; Proksch, Roger
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 108, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4948601

Local polarization dynamics in ferroelectric materials
journal, April 2010

  • Kalinin, Sergei V.; Morozovska, Anna N.; Chen, Long Qing
  • Reports on Progress in Physics, Vol. 73, Issue 5, Article No. 056502
  • DOI: 10.1088/0034-4885/73/5/056502

Ion transport and softening in a polymerized ionic liquid
journal, January 2015

  • Kumar, Rajeev; Bocharova, Vera; Strelcov, Evgheni
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 7, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4NR05491A

Nanoscale Lubrication of Ionic Surfaces Controlled via a Strong Electric Field
journal, January 2015

  • Strelcov, Evgheni; Kumar, Rajeev; Bocharova, Vera
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep08049

Electrochemical AFM “Dip-Pen” Nanolithography
journal, March 2001

  • Li, Yan; Maynor, Benjamin W.; Liu, Jie
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 123, Issue 9, p. 2105-2106
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja005654m

Defect-Mediated Polarization Switching in Ferroelectrics and Related Materials: From Mesoscopic Mechanisms to Atomistic Control
journal, January 2010

  • Kalinin, Sergei V.; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Borisevich, Albina Y.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200900813

Imaging Ferroelectric Domains and Domain Walls Using Charge Gradient Microscopy: Role of Screening Charges
journal, January 2016


Contact-resonance atomic force microscopy for viscoelasticity
journal, January 2008

  • Yuya, P. A.; Hurley, D. C.; Turner, J. A.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 104, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2996259

Mapping nanoscale elasticity and dissipation using dual frequency contact resonance AFM
journal, August 2011


Viscoelastic Property Mapping with Contact Resonance Force Microscopy
journal, December 2011

  • Killgore, J. P.; Yablon, D. G.; Tsou, A. H.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 27, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1021/la203434w

Breaking the limits of structural and mechanical imaging of the heterogeneous structure of coal macerals
journal, October 2014


Electrocatalysis-induced elasticity modulation in a superionic proton conductor probed by band-excitation atomic force microscopy
journal, January 2015

  • Papandrew, A. B.; Li, Q.; Okatan, M. B.
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 7, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5NR04809E

LVII. On the charge of electricity carried by the ions produced by Röntgen rays
journal, December 1898

  • Thomson, J. J.
  • The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Vol. 46, Issue 283
  • DOI: 10.1080/14786449808621229

Kelvin probe force microscopy for characterization of semiconductor devices and processes
journal, March 1996

  • Tanimoto, Masafumi
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 14, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.589136

Structural study of Langmuir–Blodgett films by scanning surface potential microscopy
journal, May 1994

  • Fujihira, Masamichi
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 12, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.587242

Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy of Molecular Surfaces
journal, August 1999


Electrostatic force microscopy: imaging DNA and protein polarizations one by one
journal, March 2009


Surface potential at surface-interface junctions in SrTiO 3 bicrystals
journal, October 2000


Local potential and polarization screening on ferroelectric surfaces
journal, March 2001


Charge-injection mechanisms in semiconductor nanoparticles analyzed from force microscopy experiments
journal, January 2006


Photothermal modulation for oscillating mode atomic force microscopy in solution
journal, April 1998

  • Ratcliff, Glenn C.; Erie, Dorothy A.; Superfine, Richard
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 72, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.121224

Frequency modulation detection using high‐ Q cantilevers for enhanced force microscope sensitivity
journal, January 1991

  • Albrecht, T. R.; Grütter, P.; Horne, D.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 69, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.347347

Atomic force microscope–force mapping and profiling on a sub 100‐Å scale
journal, May 1987

  • Martin, Y.; Williams, C. C.; Wickramasinghe, H. K.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 61, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.338807

Dynamic force microscopy by means of the phase-controlled oscillator method
journal, October 1997

  • Dürig, U.; Steinauer, H. R.; Blanc, N.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 82, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.365726

Quantitative dielectric constant measurement of thin films by DC electrostatic force microscopy
journal, September 2009


Broadband nanodielectric spectroscopy by means of amplitude modulation electrostatic force microscopy (AM-EFM)
journal, July 2011


Real-time evolution of trapped charge in a SiO2 layer: An electrostatic force microscopy study
journal, September 2001

  • Buh, G. H.; Chung, H. J.; Kuk, Y.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 79, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1404404

Charge Trapping in Carbon Nanotube Loops Demonstrated by Electrostatic Force Microscopy
journal, September 2005

  • Jespersen, Thomas Sand; Nygård, Jesper
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 5, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl0505997

Quantitative Noncontact Electrostatic Force Imaging of Nanocrystal Polarizability
journal, February 2003

  • Cherniavskaya, Oksana; Chen, Liwei; Weng, Vivian
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 107, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp0265438

Electric Fields on Oxidized Silicon Surfaces:  Static Polarization of PbSe Nanocrystals
journal, September 2004

  • Ben-Porat, Chaya H.; Cherniavskaya, Oksana; Brus, Louis
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 108, Issue 39
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp037418e

Screening Phenomena on Oxide Surfaces and Its Implications for Local Electrostatic and Transport Measurements
journal, April 2004

  • Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bonnell, Dawn A.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl0350837

Electrostatic forces acting on the tip in atomic force microscopy: Modelization and comparison with analytic expressions
journal, February 1997

  • Belaidi, S.; Girard, P.; Leveque, G.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 81, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.363884

Noise and the Kelvin method
journal, May 1991

  • Baikie, I. D.; Mackenzie, S.; Estrup, P. J. Z.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 62, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1142494

Multifrequency spectrum analysis using fully digital G Mode-Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, February 2016


Charge, Polarizability, and Photoionization of Single Semiconductor Nanocrystals
journal, December 1999


Electric force microscopy of individually charged nanoparticles on conductors: An analytical model for quantitative charge imaging
journal, January 2004


A Green's function solution to the image and multiple image interactions for hyperboloidal geometry: Application to metallic pointcontact infrared detectors
journal, July 1981

  • Miskovsky, N. M.; Cutler, P. H.; Feuchtwang, T. E.
  • International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. 2, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01007275

Three‐dimensional electrostatic potential, and potential‐energy barrier, near a tip‐base junction
journal, October 1994

  • Pan, Li‐Hong; Sullivan, Thomas E.; Peridier, Vallorie J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 65, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.112775

Derivation of the image interaction for non-planar pointed emitter geometries: application to field emission I–V characteristics
journal, April 1991


Nonresonant detection of electric force gradients by dynamic force microscopy
journal, December 1994

  • Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Inoue, Takahito; Itoh, Junji
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 65, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.112462

Evaluation of the capacitive force between an atomic force microscopy tip and a metallic surface
journal, April 1998

  • Hudlet, S.; Saint Jean, M.; Guthmann, C.
  • The European Physical Journal B, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s100510050219

Capacitive effects on quantitative dopant profiling with scanned electrostatic force microscopes
journal, January 1996

  • Hochwitz, Todd
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.588494

Resolution enhancement and improved data interpretation in electrostatic force microscopy
journal, November 2001


Kelvin probe force microscopy for local characterisation of active nanoelectronic devices
journal, January 2015

  • Wagner, Tino; Beyer, Hannes; Reissner, Patrick
  • Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, Vol. 6
  • DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.6.225

Understanding the Atomic-Scale Contrast in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy
journal, July 2009


Multiscale approach for simulations of Kelvin probe force microscopy with atomic resolution
journal, August 2012


Contrast formation in atomic resolution scanning force microscopy on CaF 2 (111): experiment and theory
journal, February 2001


Image charge method for electrostatic calculations in field‐emission diodes
journal, January 1996

  • Mesa, G.; Dobado‐Fuentes, E.; Sáenz, J. J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 79, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.360951

Theory of electrostatic probe microscopy: A simple perturbative approach
journal, May 2000

  • Gómez-Moñivas, S.; Sáenz, J. J.; Carminati, R.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 76, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.126528

Electrostatic forces between sharp tips and metallic and dielectric samples
journal, December 2001

  • Gómez-Moñivas, S.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Caamaño, A. J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 79, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1424478

Finite element simulations of the resolution in electrostatic force microscopy
journal, March 1998

  • Belaidi, S.; Lebon, F.; Girard, P.
  • Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, Vol. 66, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1007/s003390051138

Scanning-electrostatic-force microscopy: Self-consistent method for mesoscopic surface structures
journal, April 1998


Reconstruction of electrostatic force microscopy images
journal, August 2005

  • Strassburg, E.; Boag, A.; Rosenwaks, Y.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 76, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1988089

Microscopic Evidence for Spatially Inhomogeneous Charge Trapping in Pentacene
journal, June 2005


Time-Resolved Electric Force Microscopy of Charge Trapping in Polycrystalline Pentacene
journal, July 2007

  • Jaquith, Michael; Muller, Erik M.; Marohn, John A.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 111, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp073626l

Charge storage in Co nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 by scanning force microscopy
journal, January 1999

  • Schaadt, D. M.; Yu, E. T.; Sankar, S.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 74, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.123039

Quantifying Surface Charge Density by Using an Electric Force Microscope with a Referential Structure
journal, December 2008

  • Qi, Guicun; Yang, Yanlian; Yan, Hao
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 113, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp806667h

Quantitative analysis of electric force microscopy: The role of sample geometry
journal, May 2005

  • Tevaarwerk, Emma; Keppel, D. G.; Rugheimer, P.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 76, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1898183

Polarization Surface-Charge Density of Single Semiconductor Quantum Rods
journal, May 2004


Determination of the Surface Charge Density and Temperature Dependence of Purple Membrane by Electric Force Microscopy
journal, August 2013

  • Du, Huiwen; Li, Denghua; Wang, Yibing
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 117, Issue 34
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp403075w

Ionic and electronic impedance imaging using atomic force microscopy
journal, June 2004

  • O’Hayre, Ryan; Lee, Minhwan; Prinz, Fritz B.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 95, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1737047

Quantitative impedance measurement using atomic force microscopy
journal, September 2004

  • O’Hayre, Ryan; Feng, Gang; Nix, William D.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 96, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1778217

Scanning capacitance microscopy
journal, March 1985

  • Matey, J. R.; Blanc, J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 57, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.334506

Scanning Impedance Microscopy: From Impedance Spectra to Impedance Images
journal, January 2001


Role of Single Defects in Electronic Transport through Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors
journal, October 2002


Potential and Impedance Imaging of Polycrystalline BiFeO3 Ceramics
journal, December 2002


Scanning impedance microscopy of an active Schottky barrier diode
journal, January 2002

  • Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bonnell, Dawn A.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 91, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1427145

Real space imaging of the microscopic origins of the ultrahigh dielectric constant in polycrystalline CaCu3Ti4O12
journal, March 2005

  • Kalinin, S. V.; Shin, J.; Veith, G. M.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1880432

Local electronic transport at grain boundaries in Nb-doped Sr Ti O 3
journal, December 2004


Nonlinear transport imaging by scanning impedance microscopy
journal, November 2004

  • Shin, J.; Meunier, V.; Baddorf, A. P.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 85, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1812372

Scanning frequency mixing microscopy of high-frequency transport behavior at electroactive interfaces
journal, April 2006

  • Rodriguez, Brian J.; Jesse, Stephen; Meunier, Vincent
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2192977

Scanning polarization force microscopy: A technique for imaging liquids and weakly adsorbed layers
journal, July 1995

  • Hu, Jun; Xiao, Xu‐Dong; Salmeron, Miquel
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 67, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.114541

Imaging the Condensation and Evaporation of Molecularly Thin Films of Water with Nanometer Resolution
journal, April 1995


Electric force microscopy of dielectric heterogeneous polymer blends
journal, November 2004


Quantitative Analysis of Dielectric Constants from EFM Images of Multicomponent Polymer Blends
journal, June 2006

  • Krayev, Andrey V.; Shandryuk, Georgy A.; Grigorov, Leonid N.
  • Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 207, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/macp.200600136

Nanodielectric mapping of a model polystyrene-poly(vinyl acetate) blend by electrostatic force microscopy
journal, January 2010


Near-Static Dielectric Polarization of Individual Carbon Nanotubes
journal, September 2007

  • Lu, Wei; Wang, Dan; Chen, Liwei
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 7, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl071208m

Nanoscale capacitance imaging with attofarad resolution using ac current sensing atomic force microscopy
journal, August 2006


Dielectric-constant measurement of thin insulating films at low frequency by nanoscale capacitance microscopy
journal, December 2007

  • Fumagalli, Laura; Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2821119

Nanoscale capacitance microscopy of thin dielectric films
journal, July 2008

  • Gomila, G.; Toset, J.; Fumagalli, L.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 104, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2957069

Quantifying the dielectric constant of thick insulators using electrostatic force microscopy
journal, May 2010

  • Fumagalli, L.; Gramse, G.; Esteban-Ferrer, D.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3427362

Direct measurement of the dielectric polarization properties of DNA
journal, August 2014

  • Cuervo, A.; Dans, P. D.; Carrascosa, J. L.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 35
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1405702111

Internal Hydration Properties of Single Bacterial Endospores Probed by Electrostatic Force Microscopy
journal, November 2016

  • Van Der Hofstadt, Marc; Fabregas, Rene; Millan-Solsona, Ruben
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 10, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b06578

Nanoscale Mapping of Dielectric Properties of Nanomaterials from Kilohertz to Megahertz Using Ultrasmall Cantilevers
journal, March 2016


Local dielectric spectroscopy of near-surface glassy polymer dynamics
journal, January 2008

  • Crider, P. S.; Majewski, M. R.; Zhang, Jingyun
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 128, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2825301

Imaging dielectric relaxation in nanostructured polymers by frequency modulation electrostatic force microscopy
journal, May 2010

  • Riedel, C.; Sweeney, R.; Israeloff, N. E.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3431288

Kelvin probe force microscopy and its application
journal, January 2011


Mobile electric charges on insulating oxides with application to oxide covered silicon p-n junctions
journal, January 1964


Automatic kelvin probe compatible with ultrahigh vacuum
journal, May 1989

  • Baikie, I. D.; van der Werf, K. O.; Oerbekke, H.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 60, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1140346

Multitip scanning bio-Kelvin probe
journal, March 1999

  • Baikie, I. D.; Smith, P. J. S.; Porterfield, D. M.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 70, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1149678

Low cost PC based scanning Kelvin probe
journal, November 1998

  • Baikie, I. D.; Estrup, P. J.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 69, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1149197

Studies in contact potentials. II. Vibrating cells for the vibrating condenser method
journal, January 1950


Improvements of the piezoelectric driven Kelvin probe
journal, July 1984

  • Saito, S.; Soumura, T.; Maeda, T.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 2, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.572371

Micro Kelvin probe for local work‐function measurements
journal, May 1988

  • Baumgärtner, H.; Liess, H. D.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 59, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1139779

The influence of microstructure on the corrosion behaviour of AZ91D studied by scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe
journal, May 2006


Volta Potentials of the Copper‐Nickel Alloys and Several Metals in Air
journal, December 1951

  • Uhlig, Herbert H.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 22, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1699881

A novel detection system for defects and chemical contamination in semiconductors based upon the Scanning Kelvin Probe
journal, August 1999


A Direct Comparison of the Kelvin and Electron Beam Methods of Contact Potential Measurement
journal, November 1952


Photoelectric Work Functions of (100) and (111) Faces of Silver Single Crystals and Their Contact Potential Difference
journal, November 1940


Electrostatically driven apparatus for measuring work function differences
journal, March 1976

  • Fain, S. C.; Corbin, L. V.; McDavid, J. M.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 47, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1134620

Adsorption of water on clean aluminum by measurement of work function changes
journal, September 1972


Scanning Kelvin probe and surface photovoltage analysis of multicrystalline silicon
journal, April 2002


The Kelvin probe method for work function topographies: technical problems and solutions
journal, July 1984


High resolution atomic force microscopy potentiometry
journal, May 1991

  • Weaver, J. M. R.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 9, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.585423

Silicon pn junction imaging and characterizations using sensitivity enhanced Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, June 1995

  • Kikukawa, Atsushi; Hosaka, Sumio; Imura, Ryo
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 66, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.113780

Surface potential profiling and contact resistance measurements on operating pentacene thin-film transistors by Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, December 2003

  • Puntambekar, Kanan P.; Pesavento, Paul V.; Frisbie, C. Daniel
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 83, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1637443

Label-free and high-resolution protein/DNA nanoarray analysis using Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, September 2007


Surface Potential Analysis of Nanoscale Biomaterials and Devices Using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy
journal, January 2016

  • Lee, Hyungbeen; Lee, Wonseok; Lee, Jeong Hoon
  • Journal of Nanomaterials, Vol. 2016
  • DOI: 10.1155/2016/4209130

Characterization of AA2024‐T3 by Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy
journal, July 1998

  • Schmutz, P.; Frankel, G. S.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 145, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1838633

Corrosion Study of AA2024‐T3 by Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy and In Situ Atomic Force Microscopy Scratching
journal, July 1998

  • Schmutz, P.; Frankel, G. S.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 145, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1838634

Characterization of Corrosion Interfaces by the Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Technique
journal, January 2001

  • Guillaumin, V.; Schmutz, P.; Frankel, G. S.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 148, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1359199

An integrated AC electrokinetic pump in a microfluidic loop for fast and tunable flow control
journal, January 2004

  • Studer, Vincent; Pépin, Anne; Chen, Yong
  • The Analyst, Vol. 129, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1039/B408382M

Quantitative Measurement of the Local Surface Potential of π-Conjugated Nanostructures: A Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Study
journal, July 2006

  • Liscio, A.; Palermo, V.; Gentilini, D.
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600145

Kelvin probe force microscopy for the nano scale characterization of chalcopyrite solar cell materials and devices
journal, May 2003


Three-Dimensional Poisson-Nernst-Planck Theory Studies: Influence of Membrane Electrostatics on Gramicidin A Channel Conductance
journal, July 2000


Benefit of Grain Boundaries in Organic–Inorganic Halide Planar Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, February 2015

  • Yun, Jae S.; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Huang, Shujuan
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 6, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b00182

Kelvin probe force microscopy in ultra high vacuum using amplitude modulation detection of the electrostatic forces
journal, April 2000


Kelvin probe force microscopy on surfaces of UHV cleaved ionic crystals
journal, March 2006


Kelvin probe force microscopy on III–V semiconductors: the effect of surface defects on the local work function
journal, September 2003


AC Electric-Field-Induced Fluid Flow in Microelectrodes
journal, September 1999

  • Ramos, Antonio; Morgan, Hywel; Green, Nicolas G.
  • Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 217, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1006/jcis.1999.6346

KPFM imaging of Si(1 1 1)-Sb surface for atom distinction using NC-AFM
journal, March 2003


Direct measurement of minority carriers diffusion length using Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, October 1999

  • Meoded, T.; Shikler, R.; Fried, N.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 75, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.125039

Electrical characterization of an operating Si pn -junction diode with scanning capacitance microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, July 2001

  • Buh, G. H.; Chung, H. J.; Yi, J. H.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 90, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1375803

Surface potential mapping of biased pn junction with kelvin probe force microscopy: application to cross-section devices
journal, August 2004


Photovoltaic Charge Generation Visualized at the Nanoscale:  A Proof of Principle
journal, January 2008

  • Liscio, Andrea; De Luca, Giovanna; Nolde, Fabian
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 130, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja075291r

Surface potential of ferroelectric thin films investigated by scanning probe microscopy
journal, January 1999

  • Chen, X. Q.; Yamada, H.; Horiuchi, T.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 17, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.590851

Degradation of polycrystalline HfO 2 -based gate dielectrics under nanoscale electrical stress
journal, September 2011

  • Iglesias, V.; Lanza, M.; Zhang, K.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3637633

Label-free detection of the aptamer binding on protein patterns using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM)
journal, January 2009


Imaging the surface potential of active purple membrane
journal, January 2002

  • Knapp, Helmut F.; Mesquida, Patrick; Stemmer, Andreas
  • Surface and Interface Analysis, Vol. 33, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/sia.1172

Fabrication of a Photoelectronic Device by Direct Chemical Binding of the Photosynthetic Reaction Center Protein to Metal Surfaces
journal, October 2005


Photoinduced Surface Potential Change of Bacteriorhodopsin Mutant D96N Measured by Scanning Surface Potential Microscopy
journal, June 2006

  • Lee, Ida; Greenbaum, Elias; Budy, Stephen
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 110, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp052948r

Molecular Photovoltaics and the Photoactivation of Mammalian Cells
journal, June 2005

  • Kuritz, T.; Lee, I.; Owens, E. T.
  • IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience, Vol. 4, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TNB.2005.850480

Observation of stretched single DNA molecules by Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, March 2003


Electrostatic scanning force microscopy images of long molecules: single-walled carbon nanotubes and DNA
journal, May 2002


Improved Kelvin probe force microscopy for imaging individual DNA molecules on insulating surfaces
journal, November 2010

  • Leung, Carl; Maradan, Dario; Kramer, Armin
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3512867

Effect of Cholesterol on Electrostatics in Lipid−Protein Films of a Pulmonary Surfactant
journal, February 2010

  • Finot, Eric; Leonenko, Yuri; Moores, Brad
  • Langmuir, Vol. 26, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/la904335m

Effect of cholesterol and amyloid-β peptide on structure and function of mixed-lipid films and pulmonary surfactant BLES: an atomic force microscopy study
journal, December 2010

  • Hane, Francis; Drolle, Elizabeth; Leonenko, Zoya
  • Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, Vol. 6, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2010.05.001

Electrical Surface Potential of Pulmonary Surfactant
journal, November 2006

  • Leonenko, Zoya; Rodenstein, Mathias; Döhner, Jana
  • Langmuir, Vol. 22, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1021/la061718g

Correct Height Measurement in Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy
journal, December 2003


Compensating electrostatic forces by single-scan Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, May 2007


Apparent height in tapping mode of electrostatic force microscopy
journal, May 2006


Decoupling indirect topographic cross-talk in band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy imaging and spectroscopy
journal, June 2016

  • Yang, Sang Mo; Mazet, Lucie; Okatan, M. Baris
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 108, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4954276

Practical aspects of single-pass scan Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, November 2012

  • Li, Guangyong; Mao, Bin; Lan, Fei
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 83, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4761922

High resolution imaging of contact potential difference using a novel ultrahigh vacuum non-contact atomic force microscope technique
journal, February 1999


Resolution of Kelvin probe force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum: comparison of experiment and simulation
journal, March 2003


Force gradient sensitive detection in lift-mode Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, January 2011


Amplitude or frequency modulation-detection in Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, March 2003


Resolution and contrast in Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, August 1998

  • Jacobs, H. O.; Leuchtmann, P.; Homan, O. J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 84, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.368181

Kelvin probe study of band bending at organic semiconductor/metal interfaces: examination of Fermi level alignment
journal, May 2004


Accuracy and resolution limits of Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, March 2005


Practical aspects of Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, March 1999

  • Jacobs, H. O.; Knapp, H. F.; Stemmer, A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 70, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1149664

Characterization of tips for conducting atomic force microscopy
journal, March 1995

  • O’Shea, S. J.; Atta, R. M.; Welland, M. E.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 66, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1145649

Gold nanoparticle coated silicon tips for Kelvin probe force microscopy in air
journal, September 2013


High-Yield Assembly of Individual Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Tips for Scanning Probe Microscopies
journal, February 2001

  • Hafner, Jason H.; Cheung, Chin-Li; Oosterkamp, Tjerk H.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 105, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp003948o

Direct Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Scanning Probe Microscopy Tips
journal, October 1999

  • Hafner, Jason H.; Cheung, Chin Li; Lieber, Charles M.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 121, Issue 41
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja992761b

Carbon nanotube atomic force microscopy tips: Direct growth by chemical vapor deposition and application to high-resolution imaging
journal, March 2000

  • Cheung, C. L.; Hafner, J. H.; Lieber, C. M.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 97, Issue 8, p. 3809-3813
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.050498597

Structural and functional imaging with carbon nanotube AFM probes
journal, January 2001


Standard reference surfaces for work function measurements in air
journal, June 2001


Organic and Inorganic Contamination on Commercial AFM Cantilevers
journal, September 1999

  • Lo, Yu-Shiu; Huefner, Neil D.; Chan, Winter S.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 15, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1021/la990371x

Contact potential measurement: Spacing‐dependence errors
journal, September 1992

  • Rossi, Frank
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 63, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1143230

Analysis of stray capacitance in the Kelvin method
journal, March 1991

  • Baikie, I. D.; Venderbosch, E.; Meyer, J. A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 62, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1142075

Note: Quantitative (artifact-free) surface potential measurements using Kelvin force microscopy
journal, March 2011

  • Mélin, T.; Barbet, S.; Diesinger, H.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 82, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3516046

Cross-talk artefacts in Kelvin probe force microscopy imaging: A comprehensive study
journal, April 2014

  • Barbet, S.; Popoff, M.; Diesinger, H.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 115, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4870710

ac driving amplitude dependent systematic error in scanning Kelvin probe microscope measurements: Detection and correction
journal, April 2006

  • Wu, Yan; Shannon, Mark A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2195104

Open loop Kelvin probe force microscopy with single and multi-frequency excitation
journal, October 2013


Frequency modulation atomic force microscopy in ambient environments utilizing robust feedback tuning
journal, February 2009

  • Kilpatrick, J. I.; Gannepalli, A.; Cleveland, J. P.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 80, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3073964

Kelvin probe force microscopy in the presence of intrinsic local electric fields: Kelvin probe force microscopy in the presence of intrinsic electric fields
journal, January 2011

  • Baumgart, Christine; Müller, Anne-Dorothea; Müller, Falk
  • physica status solidi (a), Vol. 208, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201026251

Frequency dependent Kelvin probe force microscopy on silicon surfaces
journal, January 2009

  • Müller, F.; Müller, A. -D.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 27, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.3039682

Quantitative 3D-KPFM imaging with simultaneous electrostatic force and force gradient detection
journal, April 2015


Note: Switching crosstalk on and off in Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, April 2014

  • Polak, Leo; de Man, Sven; Wijngaarden, Rinke J.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 85, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4873331

Simulation and correction of geometric distortions in scanning Kelvin probe microscopy
journal, July 2000

  • Efimov, Anton; Cohen, Sidney R.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 18, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.582472

The elimination of the ‘artifact’ in the electrostatic force measurement using a novel noncontact atomic force microscope/electrostatic force microscope
journal, March 2002


The Imaging Mechanism of Atomic-scale Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy and its Application to Atomic-Scale Force Mapping
journal, November 2003

  • Okamoto, Kenji; Sugawara, Yasuhiro; Morita, Seizo
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 42, Issue Part 1, No. 11
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.42.7163

Potential shielding by the surface water layer in Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, February 2002

  • Sugimura, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Yuzuru; Hayashi, Kazuyuki
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 80, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1455145

New Insights on Atomic-Resolution Frequency-Modulation Kelvin-Probe Force-Microscopy Imaging of Semiconductors
journal, December 2009


Vacuum compatible high‐sensitive Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, April 1996

  • Kikukawa, Atsushi; Hosaka, Sumio; Imura, Ryo
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 67, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1146874

The local work function: Concept and implications
journal, February 1997


Atomic-scale variations in contact potential difference on Au/Si(111) 7×7 surface in ultrahigh vacuum
journal, April 2000


Atomic Scale Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Studies of the Surface Potential Variations on the TiO 2 ( 110 ) Surface
journal, June 2008


Dynamic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy of KBr film on InSb() surface at submonolayer coverage
journal, September 2004


The surface potential of the Si nanostructure on a Si (1 1 1) 7×7 surface generated by contact of a cantilever tip
journal, December 2002


Atomic contact potential variations of Si(111)-7 × 7 analyzed by Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, May 2010


Analytical approach to the local contact potential difference on (001) ionic surfaces: Implications for Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, July 2008


Measuring the Charge State of an Adatom with Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy
journal, June 2009


Imaging the charge distribution within a single molecule
journal, February 2012

  • Mohn, Fabian; Gross, Leo; Moll, Nikolaj
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2012.20

Surface screening of written ferroelectric domains in ambient conditions
journal, May 2013

  • Segura, J. J.; Domingo, N.; Fraxedas, J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 113, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4801983

Potential sensitivities in frequency modulation and heterodyne amplitude modulation Kelvin probe force microscopes
journal, December 2013


Deconvolution of Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements—methodology and application
journal, June 2009


Growth of nanotubes for probe microscopy tips
journal, April 1999

  • Hafner, Jason H.; Cheung, Chin Li; Lieber, Charles M.
  • Nature, Vol. 398, Issue 6730
  • DOI: 10.1038/19658

High spatial resolution Kelvin probe force microscopy with coaxial probes
journal, February 2012


Synthesis and electroplating of high resolution insulated carbon nanotube scanning probes for imaging in liquid solutions
journal, March 2012


Encased cantilevers for low-noise force and mass sensing in liquids
conference, January 2014

  • Ziegler, D.; Klaassen, A.; Bahri, D.
  • 2014 IEEE 27th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
  • DOI: 10.1109/MEMSYS.2014.6765590

The emergence of multifrequency force microscopy
journal, April 2012


Single-pass Kelvin force microscopy and d C /d Z measurements in the intermittent contact: applications to polymer materials
journal, January 2011

  • Magonov, Sergei; Alexander, John
  • Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, Vol. 2
  • DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.2.2

High potential sensitivity in heterodyne amplitude-modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, May 2012

  • Sugawara, Yasuhiro; Kou, Lili; Ma, Zongmin
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4723697

Fast, high-resolution surface potential measurements in air with heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, May 2016


The effect of patch potentials in Casimir force measurements determined by heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, May 2015


Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy without Bias-Voltage Feedback
journal, August 2007

  • Takeuchi, Osamu; Ohrai, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Shoji
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 46, Issue 8B
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.46.5626

Dual harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy for surface potential measurements of ferroelectrics
conference, July 2012

  • Collins, L.; Kilpatrick, J. I.; Bhaskaran, M.
  • 2012 Joint 21st IEEE ISAF / 11th IEEE ECAPD / IEEE PFM (ISAF/ECAPD/PFM), Proceedings of ISAF-ECAPD-PFM 2012
  • DOI: 10.1109/ISAF.2012.6297845

Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy by Dissipative Electrostatic Force Modulation
journal, November 2015


Force-gradient sensitive Kelvin probe force microscopy by dissipative electrostatic force modulation
journal, April 2017

  • Miyahara, Yoichi; Grutter, Peter
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 110, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4981937

Band excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy utilizing photothermal excitation
journal, March 2015

  • Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 106, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4913910

Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage
journal, October 2014

  • Borgani, Riccardo; Forchheimer, Daniel; Bergqvist, Jonas
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4897966

Local Charge Injection and Extraction on Surface-Modified Al 2 O 3 Nanoparticles in LDPE
journal, August 2016


Space- and Time-Resolved Mapping of Ionic Dynamic and Electroresistive Phenomena in Lateral Devices
journal, July 2013

  • Strelcov, Evgheni; Jesse, Stephen; Huang, Yen-Lin
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 7, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn4017873

Spatially Resolved Probing of Electrochemical Reactions via Energy Discovery Platforms
journal, June 2015


Time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy of polymer solar cells
journal, August 2006

  • Coffey, David C.; Ginger, David S.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 5, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1712

Imaging Local Trap Formation in Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells: A Comparison of Time-Resolved Electrostatic Force Microscopy and Scanning Kelvin Probe Imaging
journal, October 2010

  • Reid, Obadiah G.; Rayermann, Glennis E.; Coffey, David C.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 114, Issue 48
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp1056607

Submicrosecond Time Resolution Atomic Force Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Dynamics
journal, January 2012

  • Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Rayermann, Glennis E.; Shao, Guozheng
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl203956q

Fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy: Achieving sub-cycle time resolution
journal, May 2016

  • Karatay, Durmus U.; Harrison, Jeffrey S.; Glaz, Micah S.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4948396

Pump-probe Kelvin-probe force microscopy: Principle of operation and resolution limits
journal, October 2015

  • Murawski, J.; Graupner, T.; Milde, P.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4933289

Full data acquisition in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy: Mapping dynamic electric phenomena in real space
journal, August 2016

  • Collins, Liam; Belianinov, Alex; Somnath, Suhas
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep30557

Real-Time Nanoscale Open-Circuit Voltage Dynamics of Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, March 2017


Scanning probe investigation of surface charge and surface potential of GaN-based heterostructures
journal, March 2005

  • Rodriguez, B. J.; Yang, W. -C.; Nemanich, R. J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1869535

EFM data mapped into 2D images of tip-sample contact potential difference and capacitance second derivative
journal, November 2013

  • Lilliu, S.; Maragliano, C.; Hampton, M.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep03352

Half-harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy with transfer function correction
journal, February 2012

  • Guo, Senli; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3684274

Three-Dimensional Kelvin Probe Microscopy for Characterizing In-Plane Piezoelectric Potential of Laterally Deflected ZnO Micro-/Nanowires
journal, December 2011


Probing Local Ionic Dynamics in Functional Oxides at the Nanoscale
journal, July 2013

  • Strelcov, Evgheni; Kim, Yunseok; Jesse, Stephen
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl400780d

Morphology-Dependent Trap Formation in Bulk Heterojunction Photodiodes
journal, November 2012

  • Shao, Guozheng; Rayermann, Glennis E.; Smith, Eric M.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 117, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp3090843

Complete information acquisition in dynamic force microscopy
journal, March 2015

  • Belianinov, Alexei; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7550

Full information acquisition in piezoresponse force microscopy
journal, December 2015

  • Somnath, Suhas; Belianinov, Alexei; Kalinin, Sergei V.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 107, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4938482

Atomic force microscopy of liquid‐covered surfaces: Atomic resolution images
journal, August 1987

  • Marti, O.; Drake, B.; Hansma, P. K.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 51, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.98374

Imaging crystals, polymers, and processes in water with the atomic force microscope
journal, March 1989


Forces in atomic force microscopy in air and water
journal, June 1989

  • Weisenhorn, A. L.; Hansma, P. K.; Albrecht, T. R.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 54, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.101024

van der Waals interactions between sharp probes and flat sample surfaces
journal, January 1991


Measuring adhesion, attraction, and repulsion between surfaces in liquids with an atomic-force microscope
journal, May 1992


Force measurements with the atomic force microscope: Technique, interpretation and applications
journal, October 2005


Atomic Resolution with Atomic Force Microscope
journal, June 1987


Novel optical approach to atomic force microscopy
journal, September 1988

  • Meyer, Gerhard; Amer, Nabil M.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 53, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.100061

Development of liquid-environment frequency modulation atomic force microscope with low noise deflection sensor for cantilevers of various dimensions
journal, April 2006

  • Fukuma, Takeshi; Jarvis, Suzanne P.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2188867

Direct Imaging of Individual Intrinsic Hydration Layers on Lipid Bilayers at Ångstrom Resolution
journal, May 2007


Force-distance curves by atomic force microscopy
journal, January 1999


Detection and localization of single molecular recognition events using atomic force microscopy
journal, April 2006

  • Hinterdorfer, Peter; Dufrêne, Yves F.
  • Nature Methods, Vol. 3, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmeth871

Atomic force microscopy as a multifunctional molecular toolbox in nanobiotechnology
journal, May 2008


Biological atomic force microscopy: what is achieved and what is needed
journal, February 1996


Scanning attractive force microscope using photothermal vibration
journal, March 1991

  • Umeda, N.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.585187

Analysis of capacitive force acting on a cantilever tip at solid/liquid interfaces
journal, April 2013

  • Umeda, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Kei; Oyabu, Noriaki
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 113, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4801795

Numerical analysis of electrical response: Statics and dynamics of space‐charge regions at blocking electrodes
journal, January 1979

  • Franceschetti, Donald R.; Ross Macdonald, J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 50, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.325658

Diffuse charge and Faradaic reactions in porous electrodes
journal, June 2011


The impedance of a galvanic cell with two plane-parallel electrodes at a short distance
journal, October 1971

  • Ross Macdonald, J.
  • Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, Vol. 32, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0728(71)80136-5

Theory of small‐signal ac response of solids and liquids with recombining mobile charge
journal, February 1978

  • Macdonald, J. Ross; Franceschetti, Donald R.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 68, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.435929

Similarities and differences among the models proposed for real electrodes in the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory
journal, February 2012

  • Barbero, G.; Scalerandi, M.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 136, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3686767

Diffuse-charge effects on the transient response of electrochemical cells
journal, February 2010


Charge transfer kinetics at the solid–solid interface in porous electrodes
journal, April 2014

  • Bai, Peng; Bazant, Martin Z.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4585

LI. A contribution to the theory of electrocapillarity
journal, April 1913

  • Chapman, David Leonard
  • The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Vol. 25, Issue 148
  • DOI: 10.1080/14786440408634187

Accurate Simulations of Electric Double Layer Capacitance of Ultramicroelectrodes
journal, August 2011

  • Wang, Hainan; Pilon, Laurent
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 115, Issue 33
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp204498e

Thermodynamic properties of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca Cu 2 O 8 calculated from the electronic dispersion
journal, February 2008


Nonlinear electrokinetics at large voltages
journal, July 2009


Hydration Force between Mica Surfaces in Aqueous KCl Electrolyte Solution
journal, March 2012


Directly Probing the Effects of Ions on Hydration Forces at Interfaces
journal, February 2013

  • Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Loh, Siu-Hong; Jarvis, Suzanne P.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 135, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja310255s

Interfacial water dielectric-permittivity-profile measurements using atomic force microscopy
journal, June 2001


A treatment of solvent effects in the potential theory of electrolyte solutions
journal, May 1976


Spatial variation of permittivity of an electrolyte solution in contact with a charged metal surface: a mini review
journal, May 2013

  • Gongadze, E.; van Rienen, U.; Kralj-Iglič, V.
  • Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 16, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1080/10255842.2011.624769

Profile of the Static Permittivity Tensor of Water at Interfaces: Consequences for Capacitance, Hydration Interaction and Ion Adsorption
journal, April 2012

  • Bonthuis, Douwe Jan; Gekle, Stephan; Netz, Roland R.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 28, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1021/la2051564

Steric Effects in Electrolytes: A Modified Poisson-Boltzmann Equation
journal, July 1997


Adsorption of large ions from an electrolyte solution: a modified Poisson–Boltzmann equation
journal, November 2000


Towards an understanding of induced-charge electrokinetics at large applied voltages in concentrated solutions
journal, November 2009

  • Bazant, Martin Z.; Kilic, Mustafa Sabri; Storey, Brian D.
  • Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 152, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2009.10.001

High-rate electrochemical energy storage through Li+ intercalation pseudocapacitance
journal, April 2013

  • Augustyn, Veronica; Come, Jérémy; Lowe, Michael A.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3601

Porous-electrode theory with battery applications
journal, January 1975


Porous Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries - How to Prepare Them and What Makes Them Special
journal, August 2012

  • Vu, Anh; Qian, Yuqiang; Stein, Andreas
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 2, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200320

Hierarchical porous carbons with high performance for supercapacitor electrodes
journal, June 2009


A generalized Poisson and Poisson-Boltzmann solver for electrostatic environments
journal, January 2016

  • Fisicaro, G.; Genovese, L.; Andreussi, O.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 144, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4939125

Analyzing a fractal gel of charged oblate nanoparticles in a suspension using time-resolved rheometry and DLVO theory
journal, January 2016


DLVO Approximation Methods for Predicting the Attachment of Silver Nanoparticles to Ceramic Membranes
journal, February 2016


Electrostatic potential between surfaces bearing ionizable groups in ionic equilibrium with physiologic saline solution
journal, June 1971


On the Electrostatic Interaction across a Salt Solution between Two Bodies Bearing Unequal Charges
journal, September 1972


Aggregation in Charge-Stabilized Colloidal Suspensions Revisited
journal, April 1998

  • Behrens, S. H.; Borkovec, M.; Schurtenberger, P.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 14, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/la971237k

Direct observation of ionic structure at solid-liquid interfaces: a deep look into the Stern Layer
journal, May 2014

  • Siretanu, Igor; Ebeling, Daniel; Andersson, Martin P.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep04956

Temperature dependence of solvation forces
journal, May 1984

  • Christenson, Hugo K.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 80, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.447206

Dlvo and hydration forces between mica surfaces in Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+ chloride solutions
journal, February 1984


Molecular layering of water in thin films between mica surfaces and its relation to hydration forces
journal, October 1984

  • Pashley, Richard M.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.
  • Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 101, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0021-9797(84)90063-8

DLVO (Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek) theory and solvation forces between mica surfaces in polar and hydrogen-bonding liquids
journal, January 1984

  • Christenson, Hugo K.
  • Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 1: Physical Chemistry in Condensed Phases, Vol. 80, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1039/f19848001933

Effect of Membrane Surface Roughness on Colloid−Membrane DLVO Interactions
journal, May 2003

  • Hoek, Eric M. V.; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Elimelech, Menachem
  • Langmuir, Vol. 19, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1021/la027083c

DLVO Interaction between Rough Surfaces
journal, June 1998

  • Bhattacharjee, Subir; Ko, Chun-Han; Elimelech, Menachem
  • Langmuir, Vol. 14, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/la971360b

Extended DLVO interactions between spherical particles and rough surfaces
journal, June 2006

  • Hoek, Eric M. V.; Agarwal, Gaurav K.
  • Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 298, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2005.12.031

Influence of Chemical Heterogeneity and Nanoscale Roughness on the DLVO Energy Interaction by Spherical Coordinates
journal, July 2015

  • Bargozin, H.; Hadadhania, R. A.; Amiri, T. Y.
  • Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, Vol. 37, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1080/01932691.2015.1063064

Charge heterogeneity of surfaces: Mapping and effects on surface forces
journal, July 2011


Ion Binding and Ion Specificity:  The Hofmeister Effect and Onsager and Lifshitz Theories
journal, April 1997

  • Ninham, Barry W.; Yaminsky, Vassili
  • Langmuir, Vol. 13, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/la960974y

Surface forces - the last 30 A
journal, January 1981


Specific Ion Effects: Why DLVO Theory Fails for Biology and Colloid Systems
journal, October 2001


DLVO-theory, a dynamic re-interpretation
journal, December 1999


On progress in forces since the DLVO theory
journal, December 1999


A review of non-DLVO interactions in environmental colloidal systems
journal, March 2002

  • Grasso*, D.; Subramaniam, K.; Butkus, M.
  • Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1023/A:1015146710500

Specific Ion Effects: Why DLVO Theory Fails for Biology and Colloid Systems
journal, October 2001


Contact angle and the depth of the free-energy minimum in thin liquid films. Their measurement and interpretation
journal, March 1969

  • Huisman, Frits; Mysels, Karol J.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 73, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/j100723a004

Direct measurement of long range forces between two mica surfaces in aqueous KNO3 solutions
journal, August 1976

  • Israelachvili, J. N.; Adams, G. E.
  • Nature, Vol. 262, Issue 5571
  • DOI: 10.1038/262774a0

Measurement of forces between two mica surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions in the range 0–100 nm
journal, January 1978

  • Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Adams, Gayle E.
  • Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 1: Physical Chemistry in Condensed Phases, Vol. 74, Issue 0
  • DOI: 10.1039/f19787400975

Mapping interaction forces with the atomic force microscope
journal, June 1994


Forces Between Surfaces in Liquids
journal, August 1988


A comparison of surface forces and interfacial properties of mica in purified surfactant solutions
journal, February 1981


An historical review of surface force measurement techniques
journal, November 1997


Optical tweezers in colloid and interface science
journal, June 1997


Measurement of colloidal forces with TIRM
journal, October 1999


Methods of Digital Video Microscopy for Colloidal Studies
journal, April 1996

  • Crocker, John C.; Grier, David G.
  • Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 179, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1006/jcis.1996.0217

Measuring surface forces in aqueous electrolyte solution with the atomic force microscope
journal, August 1995

  • Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Jaschke, Manfred; Ducker, William
  • Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, Vol. 38, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/0302-4598(95)01800-T

Direct measurement of colloidal forces using an atomic force microscope
journal, September 1991

  • Ducker, William A.; Senden, Tim J.; Pashley, Richard M.
  • Nature, Vol. 353, Issue 6341
  • DOI: 10.1038/353239a0

Measurement of forces in liquids using a force microscope
journal, July 1992

  • Ducker, William A.; Senden, Tim J.; Pashley, Richard M.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 8, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/la00043a024

Measuring Electrochemically Induced Surface Stress with an Atomic Force Microscope
journal, October 1995

  • Raiteri, Roberto; Butt, Hans-Juergen
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 99, Issue 43
  • DOI: 10.1021/j100043a008

Measuring Electrostatic Double-Layer Forces at High Surface Potentials with the Atomic Force Microscope
journal, January 1996

  • Raiteri, Roberto; Grattarola, Massimo; Butt, Hans-Jürgen
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 100, Issue 41
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp961549g

pH-dependent charge density at the insulator-electrolyte interface probed by a scanning force microscope
journal, January 1996

  • Raiteri, Roberto; Martinoia, Sergio; Grattarola, Massimo
  • Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 11, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1016/0956-5663(96)87660-3

Preliminary results on the electrostatic double-layer force between two surfaces with high surface potentials
journal, April 1998

  • Raiteri, Roberto; Preuss, Markus; Grattarola, Massimo
  • Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 136, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0927-7757(97)00339-7

Measuring local surface charge densities in electrolyte solutions with a scanning force microscope
journal, August 1992


Forces between Silica Surfaces in Aqueous Solutions of a Weak Polyelectrolyte
journal, December 1997


Direct Force Measurements between Silica and Alumina §
journal, April 1997

  • Larson, I.; Drummond, C. J.; Chan, D. Y. C.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 13, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/la960684h

Scanned-Probe Microscopes
journal, October 1989


Atomic resolution with atomic force microscope
journal, October 1987


Imaging the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin with the atomic force microscope
journal, December 1990


Imaging cells with the atomic force microscope
journal, October 1990


From atoms to integrated circuit chips, blood cells, and bacteria with the atomic force microscope
journal, January 1990

  • Gould, S. A. C.; Drake, B.; Prater, C. B.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.576398

Electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopy
journal, October 1991


Measuring the nanomechanical properties and surface forces of materials using an atomic force microscope
journal, July 1989

  • Burnham, Nancy A.; Colton, Richard J.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.576168

Atomic force microscopy of polymeric liquid films
journal, June 1989

  • Mate, C. Mathew; Lorenz, Max R.; Novotny, V. J.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 90, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.456188

Probing the surface forces of monolayer films with an atomic-force microscope
journal, April 1990


Dynamic effects on force measurements. I. Viscous drag on the atomic force microscope cantilever
journal, May 2001

  • Vinogradova, Olga I.; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Yakubov, Gleb E.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 72, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1366630

NaCl-Dependent Ordering and Dynamic Mechanical Response in Nanoconfined Water
journal, October 2016


Measurement of Double-Layer Forces at the Electrode/Electrolyte Interface Using the Atomic Force Microscope:  Potential and Anion Dependent Interactions
journal, January 1996

  • Hillier, Andrew C.; Kim, Sunghyun; Bard, Allen J.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 100, Issue 48
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp961629k

Electrical Double-Layer Forces Measured with an Atomic Force Microscope while Electrochemically Controlling Surface Potential of the Cantilever
journal, November 1994

  • Ishino, Takashi; Hieda, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 33, Issue Part 2, No. 11A
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.33.L1552

Effects of electric potentials on surface forces in electrolyte solutions
journal, March 1996

  • Arai, Toyoko
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 14, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.589102

Measuring electrostatic double-layer forces on HOPG at high surface potentials
journal, April 1999

  • Döppenschmidt, Astrid; Butt, Hans-Jürgen
  • Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 149, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0927-7757(98)00583-4

Surface Force Measurements at a Copper Electrode/Electrolyte Interface
journal, March 2000

  • Dedeloudis, C.; Fransaer, J.; Celis, J. -P.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 104, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp9931814

Relative Surface Charge Density Mapping with the Atomic Force Microscope
journal, January 1999


Fluid Electric Force Microscopy for Charge Density Mapping in Biological Systems
journal, November 2003

  • Johnson, Amber S.; Nehl, Colleen L.; Mason, Monica G.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 19, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1021/la035255f

Mapping of electrical double-layer force between tip and sample surfaces in water with pulsed-force-mode atomic force microscopy
journal, November 1997

  • Miyatani, Tatsuya; Horii, Miki; Rosa, Armin
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 71, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.120162

Spatially resolved force spectroscopy of biological surfaces using the atomic force microscope
journal, April 1999


Atomic force microscopy of microbial cells: Application to nanomechanical properties, surface forces and molecular recognition forces
journal, January 2007


Relative Microelastic Mapping of Living Cells by Atomic Force Microscopy
journal, March 1998


Measuring the elastic properties of biological samples with the AFM
journal, January 1997

  • Radmacher, M.
  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, Vol. 16, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/51.582176

Nanomechanics of Cells and Biomaterials Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy
journal, July 2015

  • Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Revenko, Irène; Rodriguez, Brian J.
  • Advanced Healthcare Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201500229

Antibody recognition imaging by force microscopy
journal, September 1999

  • Raab, Anneliese; Han, Wenhai; Badt, Dirk
  • Nature Biotechnology, Vol. 17, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/12898

Biomolecular force measurements and the atomic force microscope
journal, February 2002


Analysis of Force Interactions between AFM Tips and Hydrophobic Bacteria Using DLVO Theory
journal, June 2009

  • Dorobantu, Loredana S.; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Foght, Julia M.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 25, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/la9001237

Quantitative Membrane Electrostatics with the Atomic Force Microscope
journal, March 2007


Probing the Lipid Membrane Dipole Potential by Atomic Force Microscopy
journal, December 2008


Hydrodynamic Force Measurements: Boundary Slip of Water on Hydrophilic Surfaces and Electrokinetic Effects
journal, February 2002


Molecular-scale investigations of structures and surface charge distribution of surfactant aggregates by three-dimensional force mapping
journal, February 2014

  • Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Kei; Oyabu, Noriaki
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 140, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4863346

Visualizing water molecule distribution by atomic force microscopy
journal, May 2010

  • Kimura, Kenjiro; Ido, Shinichiro; Oyabu, Noriaki
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 132, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3408289

Three-dimensional quantitative force maps in liquid with 10 piconewton, angstrom and sub-minute resolutions
journal, January 2013

  • Herruzo, Elena T.; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 5, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1039/C2NR33051B

Water distribution at solid/liquid interfaces visualized by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy
journal, February 2010


Atomic-Scale Distribution of Water Molecules at the Mica-Water Interface Visualized by Three-Dimensional Scanning Force Microscopy
journal, January 2010


Atomically resolved three-dimensional structures of electrolyte aqueous solutions near a solid surface
journal, July 2016

  • Martin-Jimenez, Daniel; Chacon, Enrique; Tarazona, Pedro
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12164

Spatial Distribution of Lipid Headgroups and Water Molecules at Membrane/Water Interfaces Visualized by Three-Dimensional Scanning Force Microscopy
journal, September 2012

  • Asakawa, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Shunsuke; Nishimura, Ken-ichi
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 6, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn303229j

A relationship between three-dimensional surface hydration structures and force distribution measured by atomic force microscopy
journal, January 2016

  • Miyazawa, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Naritaka; Watkins, Matthew
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 8, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08092d

Carbon nanotubes as a tip calibration standard for electrostatic scanning probe microscopies
journal, July 2002

  • Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bonnell, Dawn A.; Freitag, Marcus
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 81, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1496129

Resolution-function theory in piezoresponse force microscopy: Wall imaging, spectroscopy, and lateral resolution
journal, May 2007

  • Morozovska, Anna N.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Bravina, Svetlana L.
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 75, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.174109

High Resolution Electromechanical Imaging of Ferroelectric Materials in a Liquid Environment by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy
journal, June 2006


Controlling Polarization Dynamics in a Liquid Environment: From Localized to Macroscopic Switching in Ferroelectrics
journal, June 2007


Probing Local Electromechanical Effects in Highly Conductive Electrolytes
journal, October 2012

  • Balke, Nina; Tselev, Alexander; Arruda, Thomas M.
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 6, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn3038868

Nanoscale Ferroelectricity in Crystalline γ-Glycine
journal, April 2012

  • Heredia, Alejandro; Meunier, Vincent; Bdikin, Igor K.
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 22, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201103011

Electromechanical Imaging and Spectroscopy of Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Materials: State of the Art and Prospects for the Future
journal, August 2009


Electromechanical imaging of biomaterials by scanning probe microscopy
journal, February 2006


Atomic force microscopy-based experimental setup for studying domain switching dynamics in ferroelectric capacitors
journal, February 2005

  • Dehoff, C.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Kingon, A. I.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 76, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1850652

Single- and Multi-Frequency Detection of Surface Displacements via Scanning Probe Microscopy
journal, January 2015

  • Romanyuk, Konstantin; Luchkin, Sergey Yu.; Ivanov, Maxim
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 21, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1017/S1431927614013622

Dynamic behaviour in piezoresponse force microscopy
journal, February 2006


Temperature dependence of polarization and charge dynamics on the BaTiO3(100) surface by scanning probe microscopy
journal, February 2001

  • Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bonnell, Dawn A.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 78, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1348303

Imaging and Control of Domain Structures in Ferroelectric thin Films via Scanning Force Microscopy
journal, August 1998


Scanning force microscopy of domain structure in ferroelectric thin films: imaging and control
journal, September 1997


The piezoresponse force microscopy of surface layers and thin films: Effective response and resolution function
journal, October 2007

  • Morozovska, Anna N.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Kalinin, Sergei V.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 102, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2785824

Materials contrast in piezoresponse force microscopy
journal, June 2006

  • Kalinin, Sergei V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Morozovska, Anna N.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2206992

Nanoelectromechanics of piezoresponse force microscopy
journal, November 2004


Nanoelectromechanics of Piezoresponse Force Microscopy: Contact Properties, Fields Below the Surface and Polarization Switching
journal, January 2003


Local probing of ionic diffusion by electrochemical strain microscopy: Spatial resolution and signal formation mechanisms
journal, September 2010

  • Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Balke, N.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 108, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3460637

Electrochemical strain microscopy with blocking electrodes: The role of electromigration and diffusion
journal, January 2012

  • Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Kalinin, S. V.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3675508

Towards local electromechanical probing of cellular and biomolecular systems in a liquid environment
journal, September 2007


Intermittent contact mode piezoresponse force microscopy in a liquid environment
journal, April 2009


Nanoscale ferroelectrics: processing, characterization and future trends
journal, July 2006


Applications of piezoresponse force microscopy in materials research: from inorganic ferroelectrics to biopiezoelectrics and beyond
journal, January 2016


Quantitative mapping of switching behavior in piezoresponse force microscopy
journal, July 2006

  • Jesse, Stephen; Lee, Ho Nyung; Kalinin, Sergei V.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2214699

A decade of piezoresponse force microscopy: progress, challenges, and opportunities
journal, December 2006

  • Kalinin, Sergei; Rar, Andrei; Jesse, Stephen
  • IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol. 53, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1109/TUFFC.2006.169

Domain nucleation and hysteresis loop shape in piezoresponse force spectroscopy
journal, November 2006

  • Morozovska, Anna N.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Kalinin, Sergei V.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2378526

Nanoelectromechanics of polarization switching in piezoresponse force microscopy
journal, April 2005

  • Kalinin, S. V.; Gruverman, A.; Rodriguez, B. J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1866483

Simultaneous elastic and electromechanical imaging by scanning probe microscopy: Theory and applications to ferroelectric and biological materials
journal, January 2005

  • Shin, J.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Baddorf, A. P.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 23, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.2052714

Experimental validation of theoretical models for the frequency response of atomic force microscope cantilever beams immersed in fluids
journal, April 2000

  • Chon, James W. M.; Mulvaney, Paul; Sader, John E.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 87, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.372455

Frequency response of cantilever beams immersed in viscous fluids with applications to the atomic force microscope
journal, July 1998

  • Sader, John Elie
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 84, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.368002

Injection charge assisted polarization reversal in ferroelectric thin films
journal, February 2007

  • Kim, Yunseok; Bühlmann, Simon; Hong, Seungbum
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2679902

Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching
journal, July 2014

  • Ievlev, Anton V.; Morozovska, Anna N.; Eliseev, Eugene A.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5545

Intermittency, quasiperiodicity and chaos in probe-induced ferroelectric domain switching
journal, November 2013

  • Ievlev, A. V.; Jesse, S.; Morozovska, A. N.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 1, p. 59-66
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2796

Quantitative measurements of electromechanical response with a combined optical beam and interferometric atomic force microscope
journal, June 2015

  • Labuda, Aleksander; Proksch, Roger
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 106, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4922210

Mapping Irreversible Electrochemical Processes on the Nanoscale: Ionic Phenomena in Li Ion Conductive Glass Ceramics
journal, October 2011

  • Arruda, Thomas M.; Kumar, Amit; Kalinin, Sergei V.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 11, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl202039v

First-Order Reversal Curve Probing of Spatially Resolved Polarization Switching Dynamics in Ferroelectric Nanocapacitors
journal, December 2011

  • Kim, Yunseok; Kumar, Amit; Ovchinnikov, Oleg
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn203831h

Electrostatic pull-in instability in MEMS/NEMS: A review
journal, August 2014


Frequency-dependent electrostatic actuation in microfluidic MEMS
journal, February 2005

  • Sounart, T. L.; Michalske, T. A.; Zavadil, K. R.
  • Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/JMEMS.2004.839006

A Model for Electrostatic Actuation in Conducting Liquids
journal, October 2009

  • Panchawagh, H. V.; Sounart, T. L.; Mahajan, R. L.
  • Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 18, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1109/JMEMS.2009.2025552

MEMS Electrostatic Actuation in Conducting Biological Media
journal, April 2009


Direct measurement of periodic electric forces in liquids
journal, January 2008

  • Rodriguez, B. J.; Jesse, S.; Seal, K.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 103, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2817477

Measurement of contact potential difference between metals in liquid environments
journal, September 1968


Surface photovoltage measurements in liquids
journal, October 1999

  • Bastide, S.; Gal, D.; Cahen, David
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 70, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1150030

Big, Deep, and Smart Data in Scanning Probe Microscopy
journal, September 2016


Breaking the Time Barrier in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy: Fast Free Force Reconstruction Using the G-Mode Platform
journal, August 2017


Ultrafast current imaging by Bayesian inversion
journal, February 2018