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Title: Influence of dopant size and electron affinity on the electrical conductivity and thermoelectric properties of a series of conjugated polymers

Here, chemical doping is widely used to manipulate the electrical and thermoelectric properties of organic semiconductors, yet intelligent design of polymer–dopant systems remains elusive. It is challenging to predict the electrical and thermoelectric properties of doped organic semiconductors due to the large number of variables impacting these properties, including film morphology, dopant and polymer energetics, dopant size, and degree of polaron delocalization. Herein, a series of dopants with varying sizes and electron affinities (EAs) are combined with polymers of differing ionization energies (IEs) to investigate how the difference between polymer IE and dopant EA influences the doping efficiency and electrical conductivity, and how the dopant size influences the thermoelectric properties. Our experiments demonstrate that at low doping levels the doping efficiency strongly depends on the difference between the polymer IE and dopant EA; the effectiveness of doping on increasing electrical conductivity drastically decreases at high loadings for the molybdenum dithiolene complexes, while FeCl 3 remains effective at high loadings; and the large molybdenum complexes lead to more delocalized polarons as compared to FeCl 3. To take advantage of the complementary doping characteristics of the molybdenum complexes and FeCl 3, both dopants are employed simultaneously to reach high power factors atmore » relatively low dopant concentrations.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [5] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [3] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)
  2. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
  3. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
  4. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Shirley, NY (United States)
  5. South China Normal Univ. (People's Republic of China)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
BNL-209436-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488; JMCAET
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry. A
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 34; Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE
OSTI Identifier:
1482091
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1464569

Liang, Zhiming, Zhang, Yadong, Souri, Maryam, Luo, Xuyi, Boehm, Alex M., Li, Ruipeng, Zhang, Yan, Wang, Tairan, Kim, Doo -Young, Mei, Jianguo, Marder, Seth R., and Graham, Kenneth R.. Influence of dopant size and electron affinity on the electrical conductivity and thermoelectric properties of a series of conjugated polymers. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1039/C8TA05922E.
Liang, Zhiming, Zhang, Yadong, Souri, Maryam, Luo, Xuyi, Boehm, Alex M., Li, Ruipeng, Zhang, Yan, Wang, Tairan, Kim, Doo -Young, Mei, Jianguo, Marder, Seth R., & Graham, Kenneth R.. Influence of dopant size and electron affinity on the electrical conductivity and thermoelectric properties of a series of conjugated polymers. United States. doi:10.1039/C8TA05922E.
Liang, Zhiming, Zhang, Yadong, Souri, Maryam, Luo, Xuyi, Boehm, Alex M., Li, Ruipeng, Zhang, Yan, Wang, Tairan, Kim, Doo -Young, Mei, Jianguo, Marder, Seth R., and Graham, Kenneth R.. 2018. "Influence of dopant size and electron affinity on the electrical conductivity and thermoelectric properties of a series of conjugated polymers". United States. doi:10.1039/C8TA05922E.
@article{osti_1482091,
title = {Influence of dopant size and electron affinity on the electrical conductivity and thermoelectric properties of a series of conjugated polymers},
author = {Liang, Zhiming and Zhang, Yadong and Souri, Maryam and Luo, Xuyi and Boehm, Alex M. and Li, Ruipeng and Zhang, Yan and Wang, Tairan and Kim, Doo -Young and Mei, Jianguo and Marder, Seth R. and Graham, Kenneth R.},
abstractNote = {Here, chemical doping is widely used to manipulate the electrical and thermoelectric properties of organic semiconductors, yet intelligent design of polymer–dopant systems remains elusive. It is challenging to predict the electrical and thermoelectric properties of doped organic semiconductors due to the large number of variables impacting these properties, including film morphology, dopant and polymer energetics, dopant size, and degree of polaron delocalization. Herein, a series of dopants with varying sizes and electron affinities (EAs) are combined with polymers of differing ionization energies (IEs) to investigate how the difference between polymer IE and dopant EA influences the doping efficiency and electrical conductivity, and how the dopant size influences the thermoelectric properties. Our experiments demonstrate that at low doping levels the doping efficiency strongly depends on the difference between the polymer IE and dopant EA; the effectiveness of doping on increasing electrical conductivity drastically decreases at high loadings for the molybdenum dithiolene complexes, while FeCl3 remains effective at high loadings; and the large molybdenum complexes lead to more delocalized polarons as compared to FeCl3. To take advantage of the complementary doping characteristics of the molybdenum complexes and FeCl3, both dopants are employed simultaneously to reach high power factors at relatively low dopant concentrations.},
doi = {10.1039/C8TA05922E},
journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry. A},
number = 34,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

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