skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Vapor-Phase-Gating-Induced Ultrasensitive Ion Detection in Graphene and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks

Abstract

Designing ultrasensitive detectors often requires complex architectures, high-voltage operations, and sophisticated low-noise measurements. Here, it is shown that simple low-bias two-terminal DC-conductance values of graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes are extremely sensitive to ionized gas molecules. Incident ions form an electrode-free, dielectric- or electrolyte-free, bias-free vapor-phase top-gate that can efficiently modulate carrier densities up to ≈0.6 × 10 13 cm -2. Surprisingly, the resulting current changes are several orders of magnitude larger than that expected from conventional electrostatic gating, suggesting the possible role of a current-gain inducing mechanism similar to those seen in photodetectors. These miniature detectors demonstrate charge–current amplification factor values exceeding 10 8 A C -1 in vacuum with undiminished responses in open air, and clearly distinguish between positive and negative ions sources. At extremely low rates of ion incidence, detector currents show stepwise changes with time, and calculations suggest that these stepwise changes can result from arrival of individual ions. Lastly, these sensitive ion detectors are used to demonstrate a proof-of-concept low-cost, amplifier-free, light-emitting-diode-based low-power ion-indicator.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [5]
  1. Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)
  2. Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Villanova University, PA (United States)
  3. Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Jinju‐Si (South Korea)
  4. Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States) ; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  5. Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States) ; University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1481992
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-21107
Journal ID: ISSN 0935-9648
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 23; Journal ID: ISSN 0935-9648
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; carbon nanotubes; gating; graphene; ion detection; radiation sensors

Citation Formats

Hao, Ji, Li, Bo, Jung, Hyun Young, Liu, Fangze, Hong, Sanghyun, Jung, Yung Joon, and Kar, Swastik. Vapor-Phase-Gating-Induced Ultrasensitive Ion Detection in Graphene and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/adma.201606883.
Hao, Ji, Li, Bo, Jung, Hyun Young, Liu, Fangze, Hong, Sanghyun, Jung, Yung Joon, & Kar, Swastik. Vapor-Phase-Gating-Induced Ultrasensitive Ion Detection in Graphene and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks. United States. doi:10.1002/adma.201606883.
Hao, Ji, Li, Bo, Jung, Hyun Young, Liu, Fangze, Hong, Sanghyun, Jung, Yung Joon, and Kar, Swastik. Mon . "Vapor-Phase-Gating-Induced Ultrasensitive Ion Detection in Graphene and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks". United States. doi:10.1002/adma.201606883. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1481992.
@article{osti_1481992,
title = {Vapor-Phase-Gating-Induced Ultrasensitive Ion Detection in Graphene and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks},
author = {Hao, Ji and Li, Bo and Jung, Hyun Young and Liu, Fangze and Hong, Sanghyun and Jung, Yung Joon and Kar, Swastik},
abstractNote = {Designing ultrasensitive detectors often requires complex architectures, high-voltage operations, and sophisticated low-noise measurements. Here, it is shown that simple low-bias two-terminal DC-conductance values of graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes are extremely sensitive to ionized gas molecules. Incident ions form an electrode-free, dielectric- or electrolyte-free, bias-free vapor-phase top-gate that can efficiently modulate carrier densities up to ≈0.6 × 1013 cm-2. Surprisingly, the resulting current changes are several orders of magnitude larger than that expected from conventional electrostatic gating, suggesting the possible role of a current-gain inducing mechanism similar to those seen in photodetectors. These miniature detectors demonstrate charge–current amplification factor values exceeding 108 A C-1 in vacuum with undiminished responses in open air, and clearly distinguish between positive and negative ions sources. At extremely low rates of ion incidence, detector currents show stepwise changes with time, and calculations suggest that these stepwise changes can result from arrival of individual ions. Lastly, these sensitive ion detectors are used to demonstrate a proof-of-concept low-cost, amplifier-free, light-emitting-diode-based low-power ion-indicator.},
doi = {10.1002/adma.201606883},
journal = {Advanced Materials},
number = 23,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films
journal, October 2004


Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene
journal, July 2007

  • Schedin, F.; Geim, A. K.; Morozov, S. V.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 9, p. 652-655
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1967