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Title: Space geodetic monitoring of engineered structures: The ongoing destabilization of the Mosul dam, Iraq

Abstract

We present a detailed survey of the ongoing destabilization process of the Mosul dam. The dam is located on the Tigris river and is the biggest hydraulic structure in Iraq. From a geological point of view the dam foundation is poor due to a site geology formed by alternating strata of highly soluble materials including gypsum, anhydrite, marl and limestone. Here we present the first multi-sensor cumulative deformation map for the dam generated from space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements from the Italian constellation COSMO-SkyMed and the European sensor Sentinel-1a over the period 2014–2016 that we compare to an older dataset spanning 2004–2010 acquired with the European Envisat satellite. We found that deformation was rapid during 2004–2010, slowed in 2012–2014 and increased since August 2014 when grouting operations stopped due to the temporary capture of the dam by the self proclaimed Islamic State. We model the inferred deformation using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to solve for change in volume for simple tensile dislocations. Results from recent and historical geodetic datasets suggests that the volume dissolution rate remains constant when the equivalent volume of total concrete injected during re-grouting operations is included in the calculations.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [5];  [6]
  1. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). NASA Jet Propulsion Lab.
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science
  3. GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany). Physics of Earthquakes and Volcanoes
  4. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lyles School of Civil Engineering
  5. Univ. of L’Aquila (Italy)
  6. Italian Space Agency (ASI), Matera (Italy)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Italian Space Agency (ASI), Matera (Italy)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); Italian Space Agency (ASI)
OSTI Identifier:
1480754
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 58 GEOSCIENCES; hydrology; natural hazards

Citation Formats

Milillo, Pietro, Bürgmann, Roland, Lundgren, Paul, Salzer, Jacqueline, Perissin, Daniele, Fielding, Eric, Biondi, Filippo, and Milillo, Giovanni. Space geodetic monitoring of engineered structures: The ongoing destabilization of the Mosul dam, Iraq. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1038/srep37408.
Milillo, Pietro, Bürgmann, Roland, Lundgren, Paul, Salzer, Jacqueline, Perissin, Daniele, Fielding, Eric, Biondi, Filippo, & Milillo, Giovanni. Space geodetic monitoring of engineered structures: The ongoing destabilization of the Mosul dam, Iraq. United States. doi:10.1038/srep37408.
Milillo, Pietro, Bürgmann, Roland, Lundgren, Paul, Salzer, Jacqueline, Perissin, Daniele, Fielding, Eric, Biondi, Filippo, and Milillo, Giovanni. Tue . "Space geodetic monitoring of engineered structures: The ongoing destabilization of the Mosul dam, Iraq". United States. doi:10.1038/srep37408. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1480754.
@article{osti_1480754,
title = {Space geodetic monitoring of engineered structures: The ongoing destabilization of the Mosul dam, Iraq},
author = {Milillo, Pietro and Bürgmann, Roland and Lundgren, Paul and Salzer, Jacqueline and Perissin, Daniele and Fielding, Eric and Biondi, Filippo and Milillo, Giovanni},
abstractNote = {We present a detailed survey of the ongoing destabilization process of the Mosul dam. The dam is located on the Tigris river and is the biggest hydraulic structure in Iraq. From a geological point of view the dam foundation is poor due to a site geology formed by alternating strata of highly soluble materials including gypsum, anhydrite, marl and limestone. Here we present the first multi-sensor cumulative deformation map for the dam generated from space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements from the Italian constellation COSMO-SkyMed and the European sensor Sentinel-1a over the period 2014–2016 that we compare to an older dataset spanning 2004–2010 acquired with the European Envisat satellite. We found that deformation was rapid during 2004–2010, slowed in 2012–2014 and increased since August 2014 when grouting operations stopped due to the temporary capture of the dam by the self proclaimed Islamic State. We model the inferred deformation using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to solve for change in volume for simple tensile dislocations. Results from recent and historical geodetic datasets suggests that the volume dissolution rate remains constant when the equivalent volume of total concrete injected during re-grouting operations is included in the calculations.},
doi = {10.1038/srep37408},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = ,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}

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Cited by: 17 works
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Works referenced in this record:

Monitoring dam structural health from space: Insights from novel InSAR techniques and multi-parametric modeling applied to the Pertusillo dam Basilicata, Italy
journal, October 2016

  • Milillo, Pietro; Perissin, Daniele; Salzer, Jacqueline T.
  • International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 52
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jag.2016.06.013

Deep source model for Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, constrained by interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations: DEEP SOURCE MODEL FOR NEVADO DEL RUIZ
journal, June 2015

  • Lundgren, Paul; Samsonov, Sergey V.; López Velez, Cristian Mauricio
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063858

Three Gorges Dam stability monitoring with time-series InSAR image analysis
journal, October 2010


Nonlinear subsidence rate estimation using permanent scatterers in differential SAR interferometry
journal, January 2000

  • Ferretti, A.; Prati, C.; Rocca, F.
  • IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 38, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1109/36.868878

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Evaluation of InSAR monitoring data for post‐tunnelling settlement damage assessment
    journal, December 2018

    • Giardina, Giorgia; Milillo, Pietro; DeJong, Matthew J.
    • Structural Control and Health Monitoring
    • DOI: 10.1002/stc.2285

    Retrieving 3-D Large Displacements of Mining Areas from a Single Amplitude Pair of SAR Using Offset Tracking
    journal, April 2017

    • Yang, Zefa; Li, Zhiwei; Zhu, Jianjun
    • Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.3390/rs9040338