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Title: Challenges and Prospects for Reducing Coupled Climate Model SST Biases in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans: The U.S. CLIVAR Eastern Tropical Oceans Synthesis Working Group

Abstract

Well-known problems trouble coupled general circulation models of the eastern Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. Model climates are significantly more symmetric about the equator than is observed. Model sea surface temperatures are biased warm south and southeast of the equator, and the atmosphere is too rainy within a band south of the equator. Near-coastal eastern equatorial SSTs are too warm, producing a zonal SST gradient in the Atlantic opposite in sign to that observed. The U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) Eastern Tropical Ocean Synthesis Working Group (WG) has pursued here an updated assessment of coupled model SST biases, focusing on the surface energy balance components, on regional error sources from clouds, deep convection, winds, and ocean eddies; on the sensitivity to model resolution; and on remote impacts. Motivated by the assessment, the WG makes the following recommendations: 1) encourage identification of the specific parameterizations contributing to the biases in individual models, as these can be model dependent; 2) restrict multimodel intercomparisons to specific processes; 3) encourage development of high-resolution coupled models with a concurrent emphasis on parameterization development of finer-scale ocean and atmosphere features, including low clouds; 4) encourage further availability of all surface flux components from buoys,more » for longer continuous time periods, in persistently cloudy regions; and 5) focus on the eastern basin coastal oceanic upwelling regions, where further opportunities for observational–modeling synergism exist.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [3];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [1];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [5];  [15];  [13]
  1. Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)
  2. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao (China). Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology
  3. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  4. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  5. George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)
  6. Univ. of Bergen (Norway)
  7. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama (Japan)
  8. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
  9. GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany)
  10. Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
  11. Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., Falmouth, MA (United States)
  12. NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)
  13. Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao (China)
  14. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
  15. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (United States); National Science Foundation (NSF); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); National Basic Research Priorities Programme (China); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC); German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF); European Union (EU)
OSTI Identifier:
1480752
Grant/Contract Number:  
FC02-97ER62402; NA14OAR4310278; NA11OAR4310154; NA14OAR4310160; AGS-1233874; AGS-1338427; OCE-0745508; OCE-1334707; AGS-1462127; NNX14AM19G; NNX14AM71G; 2013CB956204; 41222037; 41221063; 03G0837A; 603521
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 97; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-0007
Publisher:
American Meteorological Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES

Citation Formats

Zuidema, Paquita, Chang, Ping, Medeiros, Brian, Kirtman, Ben P., Mechoso, Roberto, Schneider, Edwin K., Toniazzo, Thomas, Richter, Ingo, Small, R. Justin, Bellomo, Katinka, Brandt, Peter, de Szoeke, Simon, Farrar, J. Thomas, Jung, Eunsil, Kato, Seiji, Li, Mingkui, Patricola, Christina, Wang, Zaiyu, Wood, Robert, and Xu, Zhao. Challenges and Prospects for Reducing Coupled Climate Model SST Biases in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans: The U.S. CLIVAR Eastern Tropical Oceans Synthesis Working Group. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00274.1.
Zuidema, Paquita, Chang, Ping, Medeiros, Brian, Kirtman, Ben P., Mechoso, Roberto, Schneider, Edwin K., Toniazzo, Thomas, Richter, Ingo, Small, R. Justin, Bellomo, Katinka, Brandt, Peter, de Szoeke, Simon, Farrar, J. Thomas, Jung, Eunsil, Kato, Seiji, Li, Mingkui, Patricola, Christina, Wang, Zaiyu, Wood, Robert, & Xu, Zhao. Challenges and Prospects for Reducing Coupled Climate Model SST Biases in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans: The U.S. CLIVAR Eastern Tropical Oceans Synthesis Working Group. United States. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00274.1
Zuidema, Paquita, Chang, Ping, Medeiros, Brian, Kirtman, Ben P., Mechoso, Roberto, Schneider, Edwin K., Toniazzo, Thomas, Richter, Ingo, Small, R. Justin, Bellomo, Katinka, Brandt, Peter, de Szoeke, Simon, Farrar, J. Thomas, Jung, Eunsil, Kato, Seiji, Li, Mingkui, Patricola, Christina, Wang, Zaiyu, Wood, Robert, and Xu, Zhao. Thu . "Challenges and Prospects for Reducing Coupled Climate Model SST Biases in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans: The U.S. CLIVAR Eastern Tropical Oceans Synthesis Working Group". United States. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00274.1. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1480752.
@article{osti_1480752,
title = {Challenges and Prospects for Reducing Coupled Climate Model SST Biases in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans: The U.S. CLIVAR Eastern Tropical Oceans Synthesis Working Group},
author = {Zuidema, Paquita and Chang, Ping and Medeiros, Brian and Kirtman, Ben P. and Mechoso, Roberto and Schneider, Edwin K. and Toniazzo, Thomas and Richter, Ingo and Small, R. Justin and Bellomo, Katinka and Brandt, Peter and de Szoeke, Simon and Farrar, J. Thomas and Jung, Eunsil and Kato, Seiji and Li, Mingkui and Patricola, Christina and Wang, Zaiyu and Wood, Robert and Xu, Zhao},
abstractNote = {Well-known problems trouble coupled general circulation models of the eastern Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. Model climates are significantly more symmetric about the equator than is observed. Model sea surface temperatures are biased warm south and southeast of the equator, and the atmosphere is too rainy within a band south of the equator. Near-coastal eastern equatorial SSTs are too warm, producing a zonal SST gradient in the Atlantic opposite in sign to that observed. The U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) Eastern Tropical Ocean Synthesis Working Group (WG) has pursued here an updated assessment of coupled model SST biases, focusing on the surface energy balance components, on regional error sources from clouds, deep convection, winds, and ocean eddies; on the sensitivity to model resolution; and on remote impacts. Motivated by the assessment, the WG makes the following recommendations: 1) encourage identification of the specific parameterizations contributing to the biases in individual models, as these can be model dependent; 2) restrict multimodel intercomparisons to specific processes; 3) encourage development of high-resolution coupled models with a concurrent emphasis on parameterization development of finer-scale ocean and atmosphere features, including low clouds; 4) encourage further availability of all surface flux components from buoys, for longer continuous time periods, in persistently cloudy regions; and 5) focus on the eastern basin coastal oceanic upwelling regions, where further opportunities for observational–modeling synergism exist.},
doi = {10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00274.1},
journal = {Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
number = 12,
volume = 97,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}

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Cited by: 36 works
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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1. Fig. 1. : (a) CMIP5 ensemble annual-mean SST error in the historical 1960–2004 integrations of 25 Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) coupled GCMs relative to the Hadley SST climatology. (b) CMIP5 ensemble 1979–2004 annual-mean precipitation errors in the same 25 models relative to Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitationmore » (CMAP) data, and mean wind (arrows) errors in 22 models relative to ERA-I 10-m winds. Arrows plotted only where all individual model wind errors fall within 90° from the mean. White hatching denotes areas where the sign of the error agrees in all models; black dots denote where all but one [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Mark 3.6.0 (CSIRO Mk3.6.0)] agree. [Adapted from Toniazzo and Woolnough (2014).]« less

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