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Title: The relationship between eruptive activity, flank collapse, and sea level at volcanic islands: A long-term (> 1 Ma) record offshore Montserrat, Lesser Antilles

Hole U1395B, drilled southeast of Montserrat during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 340, provides a long (> 1 Ma) and detailed record of eruptive and mass-wasting events (> 130 discrete events). This record can be used to explore the temporal evolution in volcanic activity and landslides at an arc volcano. Analysis of tephra fall and volcaniclastic turbidite deposits in the drill cores reveals three heightened periods of volcanic activity on the island of Montserrat (~930 to ~900 ka, ~810 to ~760 ka, and ~190 to ~120 ka) that coincide with periods of increased volcano instability and mass-wasting. The youngest of these periods marks the peak in activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano. The largest flank collapse of this volcano (~130 ka) occurred toward the end of this period, and two younger landslides also occurred during a period of relatively elevated volcanism. These three landslides represent the only large (> 0.3 km 3) flank collapses of the Soufrière Hills edifice, and their timing also coincides with periods of rapid sea level rise (> 5 m/ka). Available age data from other island arc volcanoes suggest a general correlation between the timing of large landslides and periods of rapid sea level rise, butmore » this is not observed for volcanoes in intraplate ocean settings. We furthermore infer that rapid sea level rise may modulate the timing of collapse at island arc volcanoes, but not in larger ocean-island settings.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [6] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [9] ;  [7] more »;  [13] ;  [14] ;  [15] « less
  1. Univ. of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)
  2. Plymouth Univ., Plymouth (United Kingdom)
  3. National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom)
  4. Johannes Gutenberg Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany)
  5. National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom); Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Tasmania)
  6. Univ. of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  7. Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France)
  8. Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
  9. Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan)
  10. Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
  11. Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
  12. Geological Survey of Japan (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan)
  13. Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
  14. Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)
  15. Montserrat Volcano Observatory, Flemmings (Montserrat); Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 17; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 1525-2027
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; landslide; volcanism; sea level; IODP; Expedition 340
OSTI Identifier:
1480727

Coussens, Maya, Wall-Palmer, Deborah, Talling, Peter. J., Watt, Sebastian. F. L., Cassidy, Michael, Jutzeler, Martin, Clare, Michael A., Hunt, James. E., Manga, Michael, Gernon, Thomas. M., Palmer, Martin. R., Hatter, Stuart. J., Boudon, Georges, Endo, Daisuke, Fujinawa, Akihiko, Hatfield, Robert, Hornbach, Matthew. J., Ishizuka, Osamu, Kataoka, Kyoko, Le Friant, Anne, Maeno, Fukashi, McCanta, Molly, and Stinton, Adam. J.. The relationship between eruptive activity, flank collapse, and sea level at volcanic islands: A long-term (> 1 Ma) record offshore Montserrat, Lesser Antilles. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1002/2015GC006053.
Coussens, Maya, Wall-Palmer, Deborah, Talling, Peter. J., Watt, Sebastian. F. L., Cassidy, Michael, Jutzeler, Martin, Clare, Michael A., Hunt, James. E., Manga, Michael, Gernon, Thomas. M., Palmer, Martin. R., Hatter, Stuart. J., Boudon, Georges, Endo, Daisuke, Fujinawa, Akihiko, Hatfield, Robert, Hornbach, Matthew. J., Ishizuka, Osamu, Kataoka, Kyoko, Le Friant, Anne, Maeno, Fukashi, McCanta, Molly, & Stinton, Adam. J.. The relationship between eruptive activity, flank collapse, and sea level at volcanic islands: A long-term (> 1 Ma) record offshore Montserrat, Lesser Antilles. United States. doi:10.1002/2015GC006053.
Coussens, Maya, Wall-Palmer, Deborah, Talling, Peter. J., Watt, Sebastian. F. L., Cassidy, Michael, Jutzeler, Martin, Clare, Michael A., Hunt, James. E., Manga, Michael, Gernon, Thomas. M., Palmer, Martin. R., Hatter, Stuart. J., Boudon, Georges, Endo, Daisuke, Fujinawa, Akihiko, Hatfield, Robert, Hornbach, Matthew. J., Ishizuka, Osamu, Kataoka, Kyoko, Le Friant, Anne, Maeno, Fukashi, McCanta, Molly, and Stinton, Adam. J.. 2016. "The relationship between eruptive activity, flank collapse, and sea level at volcanic islands: A long-term (> 1 Ma) record offshore Montserrat, Lesser Antilles". United States. doi:10.1002/2015GC006053. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1480727.
@article{osti_1480727,
title = {The relationship between eruptive activity, flank collapse, and sea level at volcanic islands: A long-term (> 1 Ma) record offshore Montserrat, Lesser Antilles},
author = {Coussens, Maya and Wall-Palmer, Deborah and Talling, Peter. J. and Watt, Sebastian. F. L. and Cassidy, Michael and Jutzeler, Martin and Clare, Michael A. and Hunt, James. E. and Manga, Michael and Gernon, Thomas. M. and Palmer, Martin. R. and Hatter, Stuart. J. and Boudon, Georges and Endo, Daisuke and Fujinawa, Akihiko and Hatfield, Robert and Hornbach, Matthew. J. and Ishizuka, Osamu and Kataoka, Kyoko and Le Friant, Anne and Maeno, Fukashi and McCanta, Molly and Stinton, Adam. J.},
abstractNote = {Hole U1395B, drilled southeast of Montserrat during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 340, provides a long (> 1 Ma) and detailed record of eruptive and mass-wasting events (> 130 discrete events). This record can be used to explore the temporal evolution in volcanic activity and landslides at an arc volcano. Analysis of tephra fall and volcaniclastic turbidite deposits in the drill cores reveals three heightened periods of volcanic activity on the island of Montserrat (~930 to ~900 ka, ~810 to ~760 ka, and ~190 to ~120 ka) that coincide with periods of increased volcano instability and mass-wasting. The youngest of these periods marks the peak in activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano. The largest flank collapse of this volcano (~130 ka) occurred toward the end of this period, and two younger landslides also occurred during a period of relatively elevated volcanism. These three landslides represent the only large (> 0.3 km3) flank collapses of the Soufrière Hills edifice, and their timing also coincides with periods of rapid sea level rise (> 5 m/ka). Available age data from other island arc volcanoes suggest a general correlation between the timing of large landslides and periods of rapid sea level rise, but this is not observed for volcanoes in intraplate ocean settings. We furthermore infer that rapid sea level rise may modulate the timing of collapse at island arc volcanoes, but not in larger ocean-island settings.},
doi = {10.1002/2015GC006053},
journal = {Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems},
number = 7,
volume = 17,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}