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Title: The eruptibility of magmas at Tharsis and Syrtis Major on Mars

Abstract

Magnetic and geologic data indicate that the ratio of intrusive to extrusive magmatism (the I/E ratio) is higher in the Tharsis and Syrtis Major volcanic provinces on Mars relative to most volcanic centers on Earth. The fraction of magmas that erupt helps to determine the effects of magmatism on crustal structure and the flux of magmatic gases to the atmosphere and also influences estimates of melt production inferred from the history of surface volcanism. We consider several possible controls on the prevalence of intrusive magmatism at Tharsis and Syrtis Major, including melt production rates, lithospheric properties, regional stresses and strain rates, and magmatic volatile budgets. The Curie temperature is the minimum crustal temperature required for thermal demagnetization, implying that if the primary magnetic mineral is magnetite or hematite, the crust was warm during the intrusive magmatism reflected in Tharsis and Syrtis Major I/E ratios. When wall rocks are warm, thermally activated creep relaxes stresses from magma replenishment and regional tectonics, and eruptibility depends on buoyancy overpressure. We develop a new one-dimensional model for the development of buoyancy in a viscous regime that accounts for cooling, crystallization, volatile exsolution, bubble coalescence and rise, fluid egress, and compaction of country rock. Undermore » these conditions, we find that initial water and CO2 contents typically < 1.5 wt % can explain the observed range of intrusive/extrusive ratios. Furthermore, our results support the hypothesis that warm crust and a relatively sparse volatile budget encouraged the development of large intrusive complexes beneath Tharsis and Syrtis Major.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. City Univ. of New York, New York City, NY (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1480725
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 121; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9097
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Tharsis; Syrtis Major; Mars; magmatism; volcanism; I/E ratio

Citation Formats

Black, Benjamin A., and Manga, Michael. The eruptibility of magmas at Tharsis and Syrtis Major on Mars. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/2016JE004998.
Black, Benjamin A., & Manga, Michael. The eruptibility of magmas at Tharsis and Syrtis Major on Mars. United States. doi:10.1002/2016JE004998.
Black, Benjamin A., and Manga, Michael. Thu . "The eruptibility of magmas at Tharsis and Syrtis Major on Mars". United States. doi:10.1002/2016JE004998. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1480725.
@article{osti_1480725,
title = {The eruptibility of magmas at Tharsis and Syrtis Major on Mars},
author = {Black, Benjamin A. and Manga, Michael},
abstractNote = {Magnetic and geologic data indicate that the ratio of intrusive to extrusive magmatism (the I/E ratio) is higher in the Tharsis and Syrtis Major volcanic provinces on Mars relative to most volcanic centers on Earth. The fraction of magmas that erupt helps to determine the effects of magmatism on crustal structure and the flux of magmatic gases to the atmosphere and also influences estimates of melt production inferred from the history of surface volcanism. We consider several possible controls on the prevalence of intrusive magmatism at Tharsis and Syrtis Major, including melt production rates, lithospheric properties, regional stresses and strain rates, and magmatic volatile budgets. The Curie temperature is the minimum crustal temperature required for thermal demagnetization, implying that if the primary magnetic mineral is magnetite or hematite, the crust was warm during the intrusive magmatism reflected in Tharsis and Syrtis Major I/E ratios. When wall rocks are warm, thermally activated creep relaxes stresses from magma replenishment and regional tectonics, and eruptibility depends on buoyancy overpressure. We develop a new one-dimensional model for the development of buoyancy in a viscous regime that accounts for cooling, crystallization, volatile exsolution, bubble coalescence and rise, fluid egress, and compaction of country rock. Under these conditions, we find that initial water and CO2 contents typically < 1.5 wt % can explain the observed range of intrusive/extrusive ratios. Furthermore, our results support the hypothesis that warm crust and a relatively sparse volatile budget encouraged the development of large intrusive complexes beneath Tharsis and Syrtis Major.},
doi = {10.1002/2016JE004998},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets},
number = 6,
volume = 121,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {4}
}

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Stress differences in the Martian lithosphere: Constraints on the thermal state of Mars: STRESS DIFFERENCES IN MARS' LITHOSPHERE
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Melting of the primitive martian mantle at 0.5–2.2 GPa and the origin of basalts and alkaline rocks on Mars
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Rhyolite-MELTS: a Modified Calibration of MELTS Optimized for Silica-rich, Fluid-bearing Magmatic Systems
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Localized gravity/topography admittance and correlation spectra on Mars: Implications for regional and global evolution: LOCALIZED ADMITTANCE ON MARS
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Tharsis-radial graben systems as the surface manifestation of plume-related dike intrusion complexes: Models and implications
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Origin of water and mantle–crust interactions on Mars inferred from hydrogen isotopes and volatile element abundances of olivine-hosted melt inclusions of primitive shergottites
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Demagnetization of crust by magmatic intrusion near the Arsia Mons volcano: Magnetic and thermal implications for the development of the Tharsis province, Mars
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Methods for resolving the origin of large igneous provinces from crustal seismology: LARGE IGNEOUS PROVINCES AND SEISMOLOGY
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Reconciliation of stress and structural histories of the Tharsis region of Mars
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A global map of Mars' crustal magnetic field based on electron reflectometry
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3D spherical models of Martian mantle convection constrained by melting history
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A Model for Flood Basalt Vulcanism
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A model for the hydrologic and climatic behavior of water on Mars
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Cooling and contamination of mafic and ultramafic magmas during ascent through continental crust
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