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Title: Location of largest earthquake slip and fast rupture controlled by along-strike change in fault structural maturity due to fault growth

Abstract

Earthquake slip distributions are asymmetric along strike, but the reasons for the asymmetry are unknown. We address this question by establishing empirical relations between earthquake slip profiles and fault properties. We analyze the slip distributions of 27 large continental earthquakes in the context of available information on their causative faults, in particular on the directions of their long-term lengthening. We find that the largest slips during each earthquake systematically occurred on that half of the ruptured fault sections most distant from the long-term fault propagating tips, i.e., on the most mature half of the broken fault sections. Meanwhile, slip decreased linearly over most of the rupture length in the direction of long-term fault propagation, i.e., of decreasing structural maturity along strike. We suggest that this earthquake slip asymmetry is governed by along-strike changes in fault properties, including fault zone compliance and fault strength, induced by the evolution of off-fault damage, fault segmentation, and fault planarity with increasing structural maturity. We also find higher rupture speeds in more mature rupture sections, consistent with predicted effects of low-velocity damage zones on rupture dynamics. Since the direction(s) of long-term fault propagation can be determined from geological evidence, it might be possible to anticipatemore » in which direction earthquake slip, once nucleated, may increase, accelerate, and possibly lead to a large earthquake. Finally, our results could thus contribute to earthquake hazard assessment and Earthquake Early Warning.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis, Sophia-Antipolis (France)
  2. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis, Sophia-Antipolis (France); Institut Univ. de France, Paris (France)
  4. Paris VII-Denis Diderot Univ., Paris (France)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1480720
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 121; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; earthquake slip; fault properties; fault structural maturity; rupture speed; off‐fault damage; fault strength

Citation Formats

Perrin, Clément, Manighetti, Isabelle, Ampuero, Jean -Paul, Cappa, Frédéric, and Gaudemer, Yves. Location of largest earthquake slip and fast rupture controlled by along-strike change in fault structural maturity due to fault growth. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/2015JB012671.
Perrin, Clément, Manighetti, Isabelle, Ampuero, Jean -Paul, Cappa, Frédéric, & Gaudemer, Yves. Location of largest earthquake slip and fast rupture controlled by along-strike change in fault structural maturity due to fault growth. United States. doi:10.1002/2015JB012671.
Perrin, Clément, Manighetti, Isabelle, Ampuero, Jean -Paul, Cappa, Frédéric, and Gaudemer, Yves. Sun . "Location of largest earthquake slip and fast rupture controlled by along-strike change in fault structural maturity due to fault growth". United States. doi:10.1002/2015JB012671. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1480720.
@article{osti_1480720,
title = {Location of largest earthquake slip and fast rupture controlled by along-strike change in fault structural maturity due to fault growth},
author = {Perrin, Clément and Manighetti, Isabelle and Ampuero, Jean -Paul and Cappa, Frédéric and Gaudemer, Yves},
abstractNote = {Earthquake slip distributions are asymmetric along strike, but the reasons for the asymmetry are unknown. We address this question by establishing empirical relations between earthquake slip profiles and fault properties. We analyze the slip distributions of 27 large continental earthquakes in the context of available information on their causative faults, in particular on the directions of their long-term lengthening. We find that the largest slips during each earthquake systematically occurred on that half of the ruptured fault sections most distant from the long-term fault propagating tips, i.e., on the most mature half of the broken fault sections. Meanwhile, slip decreased linearly over most of the rupture length in the direction of long-term fault propagation, i.e., of decreasing structural maturity along strike. We suggest that this earthquake slip asymmetry is governed by along-strike changes in fault properties, including fault zone compliance and fault strength, induced by the evolution of off-fault damage, fault segmentation, and fault planarity with increasing structural maturity. We also find higher rupture speeds in more mature rupture sections, consistent with predicted effects of low-velocity damage zones on rupture dynamics. Since the direction(s) of long-term fault propagation can be determined from geological evidence, it might be possible to anticipate in which direction earthquake slip, once nucleated, may increase, accelerate, and possibly lead to a large earthquake. Finally, our results could thus contribute to earthquake hazard assessment and Earthquake Early Warning.},
doi = {10.1002/2015JB012671},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth},
number = 5,
volume = 121,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {5}
}

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Fault propagation and segmentation: insight from the microstructural examination of a small fault
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Thrust-fault growth and segment linkage in the active Ostler fault zone, New Zealand
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Coseismic damage and softening of fault rocks at seismogenic depths
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Conditions governing the occurrence of supershear ruptures under slip-weakening friction
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Earthquake scaling, fault segmentation, and structural maturity
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Velocity contrast along the rupture zone of the 2010 Mw6.9 Yushu, China, earthquake from fault zone head waves
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Spectral-element simulations of long-term fault slip: Effect of low-rigidity layers on earthquake-cycle dynamics
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Formation of segmented normal faults: a 3-D perspective
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Active faulting and cenozoic tectonics of the Tien Shan, Mongolia, and Baykal Regions
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Faults smooth gradually as a function of slip
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Normal-Faulting Slip Maxima and Stress-Drop Variability: A Geological Perspective
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Fault terminations and barriers to fault growth
journal, October 2004


Fault growth and fault scaling laws: Preliminary results
journal, December 1993

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Slip distributions on faults: effects of stress gradients, inelastic deformation, heterogeneous host-rock stiffness, and fault interaction
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Frictional strength and strain weakening in simulated fault gouge: Competition between geometrical weakening and chemical strengthening
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Normal fault interactions, paleoearthquakes and growth in an active rift
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The formation of conjugate normal fault systems in folded sandstone by sequential jointing and shearing, Waterpocket monocline, Utah: FORMATION OF FAULT SYSTEMS IN SANDSTONE
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A linkage criterion for segmented normal faults
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Geometric and rheological asperities in an exposed fault zone
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Physical analog modeling of pull-apart basin evolution
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Slip tapers at the tips of faults and earthquake ruptures: SLIP TAPERS AT FAULTS AND RUPTURES
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Interactions of growing folds and coeval depositional systems
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Radiography of a normal fault system by 64,000 high-precision earthquake locations: The 2009 L'Aquila (central Italy) case study: RADIOGRAPHY OF THE L'AQUILA NORMAL FAULT
journal, March 2013

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Analysis of the growth of strike-slip faults using effective medium theory
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Earthquakes and friction laws
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Damage zone geometry around fault tips
journal, July 1995


Propagation of rifting along the Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary: Into Afar
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Displacements and segment linkage in strike-slip fault zones
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Earthquakes and fault zone structure
journal, April 2014

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Oblique, High-Angle, Listric-Reverse Faulting and Associated Development of Strain: The Wenchuan Earthquake of May 12, 2008, Sichuan, China
journal, April 2010


Thickness of the Seismic Slip Zone
journal, June 2003

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Finite-Fault Rupture Detector ( FinDer ): Going Real-Time in Californian ShakeAlert Warning System
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Surface Rupture of the 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan, Earthquake and Its Active Tectonic Implications
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Geological setting of the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake
journal, May 2008


Additional shear resistance from fault roughness and stress levels on geometrically complex faults: ROUGHNESS DRAG AND FAULT STRESS LEVELS
journal, July 2013

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  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 118, Issue 7
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Towards inferring earthquake patterns from geodetic observations of interseismic coupling
journal, April 2010

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Stress diffusion along rupturing plate boundaries
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Active tectonics at Wheeler Ridge, southern San Joaquin Valley, California
journal, March 1998


Geodetic exploration of the elastic properties across and within the northern San Andreas Fault zone
journal, October 2009

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The Fracture Energy of Earthquakes
journal, November 1975


Stochastic model of heterogeneity in earthquake slip spatial distributions
journal, May 2006


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The 2014 Cephalonia Earthquakes: Finite Fault Modeling, Fault Segmentation, Shear and Thrusting at the NW Aegean Arc (Greece)
    journal, July 2018

    • Saltogianni, Vasso; Moschas, Fanis; Stiros, Stathis
    • Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 175, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00024-018-1938-2

    The 2014 Cephalonia Earthquakes: Finite Fault Modeling, Fault Segmentation, Shear and Thrusting at the NW Aegean Arc (Greece)
    journal, July 2018

    • Saltogianni, Vasso; Moschas, Fanis; Stiros, Stathis
    • Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 175, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00024-018-1938-2