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Title: NuSTAR Hard X-Ray of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-Ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

Abstract

Here, we present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456–2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). NuSTAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with Γ ~ 1.3–2.3 up to ~50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). NuSTAR detects non-thermal X-ray continuum emission spatially correlated with the 6.4 keV Fe Kα fluorescence line emission associated with two Sgr A molecular clouds: MC1 and the Bridge. Broadband X-ray spectral analysis with a Monte-Carlo based X-ray reflection model self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density (~1023 cm–2), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws with Γ ~ 2) and set a lower limit of the X-ray luminosity of Sgr A* flare illuminating the Sgr A clouds to LX ≳ 1038 erg s–1. Above ~20 keV, hard X-ray emission in the central 10 pc region around Sgr A* consists of the candidate PWN G359.95–0.04 and the CHXE, possibly resulting from anmore » unresolved population of massive CVs with white dwarf masses MWD ~ 0.9 M. Spectral energy distribution analysis suggests that G359.95–0.04 is likely the hard X-ray counterpart of the ultra-high gamma-ray source HESS J1745–290, strongly favoring a leptonic origin of the GC TeV emission.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8];  [9]; ORCiD logo [10];  [7];  [7];  [1]; ORCiD logo [11];  [12];  [13];  [14] more »;  [13];  [3];  [13];  [11];  [15];  [16];  [1]; ORCiD logo [13];  [13]; ORCiD logo [13];  [17];  [18]; ORCiD logo [17]; ORCiD logo [13]; ORCiD logo [13];  [11];  [19];  [7] « less
  1. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia)
  3. Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  4. Max-Planck-Institut f. extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)
  5. Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Santiago (Chile); Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO (United States)
  6. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Harvard College, Haverford, PA (United States)
  7. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  8. Durham Univ., Durham (United Kingdom)
  9. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  10. Univ. de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Toulouse Cedex (France)
  11. Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)
  12. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  13. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  14. ASI Science Data Center, Roma (Italy)
  15. Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan)
  16. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  17. ASI Science Data Center, Roma (Italy); INAF - Astronomico di Roma, Monteporzio (Italy)
  18. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  19. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1480407
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-746966
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; 931727
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 814; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Galaxy: center; radiation mechanisms: non-thermal; X-rays: general; X-rays: ISM

Citation Formats

Mori, Kaya, Hailey, Charles J., Krivonos, Roman, Hong, Jaesub, Ponti, Gabriele, Bauer, Franz, Perez, Kerstin, Nynka, Melania, Zhang, Shuo, Tomsick, John A., Alexander, David M., Baganoff, Frederick K., Barret, Didier, Barrière, Nicolas, Boggs, Steven E., Canipe, Alicia M., Christensen, Finn E., Craig, William W., Forster, Karl, Giommi, Paolo, Grefenstette, Brian W., Grindlay, Jonathan E., Harrison, Fiona A., Hornstrup, Allan, Kitaguchi, Takao, Koglin, Jason E., Luu, Vy, Madsen, Kristen K., Mao, Peter H., Miyasaka, Hiromasa, Perri, Matteo, Pivovaroff, Michael J., Puccetti, Simonetta, Rana, Vikram, Stern, Daniel, Westergaard, Niels J., Zhang, William W., and Zoglauer, Andreas. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-Ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/94.
Mori, Kaya, Hailey, Charles J., Krivonos, Roman, Hong, Jaesub, Ponti, Gabriele, Bauer, Franz, Perez, Kerstin, Nynka, Melania, Zhang, Shuo, Tomsick, John A., Alexander, David M., Baganoff, Frederick K., Barret, Didier, Barrière, Nicolas, Boggs, Steven E., Canipe, Alicia M., Christensen, Finn E., Craig, William W., Forster, Karl, Giommi, Paolo, Grefenstette, Brian W., Grindlay, Jonathan E., Harrison, Fiona A., Hornstrup, Allan, Kitaguchi, Takao, Koglin, Jason E., Luu, Vy, Madsen, Kristen K., Mao, Peter H., Miyasaka, Hiromasa, Perri, Matteo, Pivovaroff, Michael J., Puccetti, Simonetta, Rana, Vikram, Stern, Daniel, Westergaard, Niels J., Zhang, William W., & Zoglauer, Andreas. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-Ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/94.
Mori, Kaya, Hailey, Charles J., Krivonos, Roman, Hong, Jaesub, Ponti, Gabriele, Bauer, Franz, Perez, Kerstin, Nynka, Melania, Zhang, Shuo, Tomsick, John A., Alexander, David M., Baganoff, Frederick K., Barret, Didier, Barrière, Nicolas, Boggs, Steven E., Canipe, Alicia M., Christensen, Finn E., Craig, William W., Forster, Karl, Giommi, Paolo, Grefenstette, Brian W., Grindlay, Jonathan E., Harrison, Fiona A., Hornstrup, Allan, Kitaguchi, Takao, Koglin, Jason E., Luu, Vy, Madsen, Kristen K., Mao, Peter H., Miyasaka, Hiromasa, Perri, Matteo, Pivovaroff, Michael J., Puccetti, Simonetta, Rana, Vikram, Stern, Daniel, Westergaard, Niels J., Zhang, William W., and Zoglauer, Andreas. Thu . "NuSTAR Hard X-Ray of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-Ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/94. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1480407.
@article{osti_1480407,
title = {NuSTAR Hard X-Ray of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-Ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission},
author = {Mori, Kaya and Hailey, Charles J. and Krivonos, Roman and Hong, Jaesub and Ponti, Gabriele and Bauer, Franz and Perez, Kerstin and Nynka, Melania and Zhang, Shuo and Tomsick, John A. and Alexander, David M. and Baganoff, Frederick K. and Barret, Didier and Barrière, Nicolas and Boggs, Steven E. and Canipe, Alicia M. and Christensen, Finn E. and Craig, William W. and Forster, Karl and Giommi, Paolo and Grefenstette, Brian W. and Grindlay, Jonathan E. and Harrison, Fiona A. and Hornstrup, Allan and Kitaguchi, Takao and Koglin, Jason E. and Luu, Vy and Madsen, Kristen K. and Mao, Peter H. and Miyasaka, Hiromasa and Perri, Matteo and Pivovaroff, Michael J. and Puccetti, Simonetta and Rana, Vikram and Stern, Daniel and Westergaard, Niels J. and Zhang, William W. and Zoglauer, Andreas},
abstractNote = {Here, we present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456–2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). NuSTAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with Γ ~ 1.3–2.3 up to ~50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). NuSTAR detects non-thermal X-ray continuum emission spatially correlated with the 6.4 keV Fe Kα fluorescence line emission associated with two Sgr A molecular clouds: MC1 and the Bridge. Broadband X-ray spectral analysis with a Monte-Carlo based X-ray reflection model self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density (~1023 cm–2), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws with Γ ~ 2) and set a lower limit of the X-ray luminosity of Sgr A* flare illuminating the Sgr A clouds to LX ≳ 1038 erg s–1. Above ~20 keV, hard X-ray emission in the central 10 pc region around Sgr A* consists of the candidate PWN G359.95–0.04 and the CHXE, possibly resulting from an unresolved population of massive CVs with white dwarf masses MWD ~ 0.9 M⊙. Spectral energy distribution analysis suggests that G359.95–0.04 is likely the hard X-ray counterpart of the ultra-high gamma-ray source HESS J1745–290, strongly favoring a leptonic origin of the GC TeV emission.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/94},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 814,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {11}
}

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  • Perez, Kerstin; Hailey, Charles J.; Bauer, Franz E.
  • Nature, Vol. 520, Issue 7549
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature14353

DISCOVERY OF A SUPERLUMINAL Fe K ECHO AT THE GALACTIC CENTER: THE GLORIOUS PAST OF Sgr A* PRESERVED BY MOLECULAR CLOUDS
journal, April 2010


Nonthermal THz to TeV Emission from Stellar Wind Shocks in the Galactic Center
journal, November 2005

  • Quataert, Eliot; Loeb, Abraham
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 635, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/499126

X-ray spectra of a large sample of quasars with ASCA
journal, August 2000


The Distance to the Center of the Galaxy
journal, September 1993


A TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAX OF Sgr B2
journal, October 2009


The Proper Motion of Sagittarius A*. I. First VLBA Results
journal, October 1999

  • Reid, M. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Vermeulen, R. C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 524, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/307855

Discrete sources as the origin of the Galactic X-ray ridge emission
journal, April 2009

  • Revnivtsev, M.; Sazonov, S.; Churazov, E.
  • Nature, Vol. 458, Issue 7242
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature07946

Origin of the Galactic ridge X-ray emission
journal, May 2006


Hard X-ray view of the past activity of Sgr A$^{\star}$ in a natural Compton mirror
journal, September 2004


A comprehensive range of X-ray ionized-reflection models
journal, March 2005


The discovery of a new non-thermal X-ray filament near the Galactic Centre
journal, April 2003


XMM-Newton observations of Sagittarius A East
journal, May 2004


Gx 3+1: the Stability of Spectral Index as a Function of mass Accretion rate
journal, February 2012


The center of the Galaxy in the recent past - A view from GRANAT
journal, April 1993

  • Sunyaev, R. A.; Markevitch, M.; Pavlinsky, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 407
  • DOI: 10.1086/172542

Nonthermal X-rays from low-energy cosmic rays: application to the 6.4 keV line emission from the Arches cluster region
journal, October 2012


FADING HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC CENTER MOLECULAR CLOUD Sgr B2
journal, July 2010


Dense Molecular Clouds in the Galactic Center Region. I. Observations and Data
journal, January 1999

  • Tsuboi, Masato; Handa, Toshihiro; Ukita, Nobuharu
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 120, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/313165

Interaction between the SNR Sagittarius A East and the 50-km s −1 Molecular Cloud
journal, December 2006

  • Tsuboi, Masato; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Miyazaki, Atsushi
  • Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 54
  • DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/54/1/003

Detection of Sub-TeV Gamma Rays from the Galactic Center Direction by CANGAROO-II
journal, April 2004

  • Tsuchiya, K.; Enomoto, R.; Ksenofontov, L. T.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 606, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/421292

Atomic Data for Astrophysics. II. New Analytic FITS for Photoionization Cross Sections of Atoms and Ions
journal, July 1996

  • Verner, D. A.; Ferland, G. J.; Korista, K. T.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 465
  • DOI: 10.1086/177435

A faint discrete source origin for the highly ionized iron emission from the Galactic Centre region
journal, January 2002

  • Wang, Q. D.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Lang, C. C.
  • Nature, Vol. 415, Issue 6868
  • DOI: 10.1038/415148a

X‐Ray Thread G0.13−0.11: A Pulsar Wind Nebula?
journal, December 2002

  • Wang, Q. Daniel; Lu, Fangjun; Lang, Cornelia C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 581, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/344401

G359.95-0.04: an energetic pulsar candidate near Sgr A
journal, April 2006


A Chandra Search for Coronal X‐Rays from the Cool White Dwarf GD 356
journal, March 2007

  • Weisskopf, Martin C.; Wu, Kinwah; Trimble, Virginia
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 657, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/510776

The XMM-Newton / Chandra monitoring campaign of the Galactic center region : Description of the program and preliminary results
journal, March 2006


NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS OF THE BULLET CLUSTER: CONSTRAINTS ON INVERSE COMPTON EMISSION
journal, August 2014


On the Absorption of X‐Rays in the Interstellar Medium
journal, October 2000

  • Wilms, J.; Allen, A.; McCray, R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 542, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/317016

The INTEGRAL mission
journal, November 2003


HEAO 1 measurements of the galactic ridge
journal, April 1982

  • Worrall, D. M.; Marshall, F. E.; Boldt, E. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 255
  • DOI: 10.1086/159809

The nature of the Compton-thick X-ray reprocessor in NGC 4945: Compton-thick X-ray reprocessor in NGC 4945
journal, June 2012


Broadband Spectral Analysis of the Galactic Ridge X-Ray Emission
journal, June 2012


A 3 pc SCALE JET-DRIVEN OUTFLOW FROM SGR A*
journal, September 2012


Interacting Cosmic rays with Molecular Clouds: a Bremsstrahlung Origin of Diffuse High-Energy Emission from the Inner 2°×1° of the Galactic Center
journal, December 2012


The Origin of X-Ray Emission from a Galactic Center Molecular Cloud: Low-Energy Cosmic-Ray Electrons
journal, April 2002

  • Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Law, C.; Wardle, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 568, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/340379

Detection of X‐Ray Emission from the Arches Cluster near the Galactic Center
journal, May 2002

  • Yusef‐Zadeh, F.; Law, C.; Wardle, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 570, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/340058

The linear filaments of the radio arc near the Galactic center
journal, November 1987

  • Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Morris, Mark
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 322
  • DOI: 10.1086/165767

The Origin of Diffuse X‐Ray and γ‐Ray Emission from the Galactic Center Region: Cosmic‐Ray Particles
journal, February 2007

  • Yusef‐Zadeh, F.; Muno, M.; Wardle, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 656, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/510663

Nonthermal Radiation from Pulsar Wind Nebulae
journal, April 2008

  • Zhang, L.; Chen, S. B.; Fang, J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 676, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/527466

High-Energy X-Ray Detection of G359.89–0.08 (sgr A–E): Magnetic flux tube Emission Powered by Cosmic Rays?
journal, February 2014

  • Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 784, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/784/1/6

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Approaching hell’s kitchen: Molecular daredevil clouds in the vicinity of Sagittarius A* 
    journal, July 2017


    Approaching hell’s kitchen: Molecular daredevil clouds in the vicinity of Sagittarius A* 
    journal, July 2017


    Evidence for Intermediate Polars as the Origin of the Galactic Center hard X-Ray Emission
    journal, July 2016