skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The X-ray counterpart to the gravitational-wave event GW170817

Abstract

We present a long-standing paradigm in astrophysics is that collisions—or mergers—of two neutron stars form highly relativistic and collimated outflows (jets) that power γ-ray bursts of short (less than two seconds) duration. The observational support for this model, however, is only indirect. A hitherto outstanding prediction is that gravitational-wave events from such mergers should be associated with γ-ray bursts, and that a majority of these bursts should be seen off-axis, that is, they should point away from Earth. Here we report the discovery observations of the X-ray counterpart associated with the gravitational-wave event GW170817. Although the electromagnetic counterpart at optical and infrared frequencies is dominated by the radioactive glow (known as a ‘kilonova’) from freshly synthesized rapid neutron capture (r-process) material in the merger ejecta, observations at X-ray and, later, radio frequencies are consistent with a short γ-ray burst viewed off-axis. Lastly, our detection of X-ray emission at a location coincident with the kilonova transient provides the missing observational link between short γ-ray bursts and gravitational waves from neutron-star mergers, and gives independent confirmation of the collimated nature of the γ-ray-burst emission.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [4];  [10];  [11];  [6];  [4];  [5];  [12];  [13];  [13];  [5];  [14] more »;  [14];  [4];  [15];  [6];  [5];  [16];  [16];  [5];  [1];  [5];  [2];  [17];  [18];  [5] « less
  1. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  2. INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Rome (Italy)
  3. University of Bath, Claverton Down (United Kingdom)
  4. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  5. Seoul National University (South Korea)
  6. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)
  7. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  8. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  9. Aoyama Gakuin University (Japan)
  10. INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia (Italy)
  11. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)
  12. Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse (Germany)
  13. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico)
  14. INAF/Brera Astronomical Observatory, Merate (Italy)
  15. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Universidad de La Laguna (Spain)
  16. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (South Korea)
  17. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  18. CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping (Australia)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1479933
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-29087
Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature (London)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 551; Journal Issue: 7678; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gravitational waves; kilonova; X-rays; counterpart; r-process

Citation Formats

Troja, E., Piro, L., van Eerten, H., Wollaeger, R. T., Im, M., Fox, O. D., Butler, N. R., Cenko, S. B., Sakamoto, T., Fryer, C. L., Ricci, R., Lien, A., Ryan, R. E., Korobkin, O., Lee, S. -K., Burgess, J. M., Lee, W. H., Watson, A. M., Choi, C., Covino, S., D’Avanzo, P., Fontes, C. J., González, J. Becerra, Khandrika, H. G., Kim, J., Kim, S. -L., Lee, C. -U., Lee, H. M., Kutyrev, A., Lim, G., Sánchez-Ramírez, R., Veilleux, S., Wieringa, M. H., and Yoon, Y.. The X-ray counterpart to the gravitational-wave event GW170817. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature24290.
Troja, E., Piro, L., van Eerten, H., Wollaeger, R. T., Im, M., Fox, O. D., Butler, N. R., Cenko, S. B., Sakamoto, T., Fryer, C. L., Ricci, R., Lien, A., Ryan, R. E., Korobkin, O., Lee, S. -K., Burgess, J. M., Lee, W. H., Watson, A. M., Choi, C., Covino, S., D’Avanzo, P., Fontes, C. J., González, J. Becerra, Khandrika, H. G., Kim, J., Kim, S. -L., Lee, C. -U., Lee, H. M., Kutyrev, A., Lim, G., Sánchez-Ramírez, R., Veilleux, S., Wieringa, M. H., & Yoon, Y.. The X-ray counterpart to the gravitational-wave event GW170817. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature24290
Troja, E., Piro, L., van Eerten, H., Wollaeger, R. T., Im, M., Fox, O. D., Butler, N. R., Cenko, S. B., Sakamoto, T., Fryer, C. L., Ricci, R., Lien, A., Ryan, R. E., Korobkin, O., Lee, S. -K., Burgess, J. M., Lee, W. H., Watson, A. M., Choi, C., Covino, S., D’Avanzo, P., Fontes, C. J., González, J. Becerra, Khandrika, H. G., Kim, J., Kim, S. -L., Lee, C. -U., Lee, H. M., Kutyrev, A., Lim, G., Sánchez-Ramírez, R., Veilleux, S., Wieringa, M. H., and Yoon, Y.. Mon . "The X-ray counterpart to the gravitational-wave event GW170817". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature24290. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1479933.
@article{osti_1479933,
title = {The X-ray counterpart to the gravitational-wave event GW170817},
author = {Troja, E. and Piro, L. and van Eerten, H. and Wollaeger, R. T. and Im, M. and Fox, O. D. and Butler, N. R. and Cenko, S. B. and Sakamoto, T. and Fryer, C. L. and Ricci, R. and Lien, A. and Ryan, R. E. and Korobkin, O. and Lee, S. -K. and Burgess, J. M. and Lee, W. H. and Watson, A. M. and Choi, C. and Covino, S. and D’Avanzo, P. and Fontes, C. J. and González, J. Becerra and Khandrika, H. G. and Kim, J. and Kim, S. -L. and Lee, C. -U. and Lee, H. M. and Kutyrev, A. and Lim, G. and Sánchez-Ramírez, R. and Veilleux, S. and Wieringa, M. H. and Yoon, Y.},
abstractNote = {We present a long-standing paradigm in astrophysics is that collisions—or mergers—of two neutron stars form highly relativistic and collimated outflows (jets) that power γ-ray bursts of short (less than two seconds) duration. The observational support for this model, however, is only indirect. A hitherto outstanding prediction is that gravitational-wave events from such mergers should be associated with γ-ray bursts, and that a majority of these bursts should be seen off-axis, that is, they should point away from Earth. Here we report the discovery observations of the X-ray counterpart associated with the gravitational-wave event GW170817. Although the electromagnetic counterpart at optical and infrared frequencies is dominated by the radioactive glow (known as a ‘kilonova’) from freshly synthesized rapid neutron capture (r-process) material in the merger ejecta, observations at X-ray and, later, radio frequencies are consistent with a short γ-ray burst viewed off-axis. Lastly, our detection of X-ray emission at a location coincident with the kilonova transient provides the missing observational link between short γ-ray bursts and gravitational waves from neutron-star mergers, and gives independent confirmation of the collimated nature of the γ-ray-burst emission.},
doi = {10.1038/nature24290},
journal = {Nature (London)},
number = 7678,
volume = 551,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 200 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Identification of two classes of gamma-ray bursts
journal, August 1993

  • Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 413
  • DOI: 10.1086/186969

Precursors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, October 2010


Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow with Continuous Energy Injection: Signature of a Highly Magnetized Millisecond Pulsar
journal, May 2001

  • Zhang, Bing; Mészáros, Peter
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 552, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/320255

The electromagnetic signals of compact binary mergers
journal, February 2013

  • Piran, T.; Nakar, E.; Rosswog, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 430, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt037

MODELING THE AFTERGLOW OF THE POSSIBLE FERMI -GBM EVENT ASSOCIATED WITH GW150914
journal, July 2016


Microscopic mass formulas
journal, July 1995


On the host Galaxy of grb 150101b and the Associated Active Galactic Nucleus
journal, June 2016


Relativistic opacities for astrophysical applications
journal, September 2015


Light Curves and Spectra from a Thermonuclear Explosion of a White Dwarf Merger
journal, August 2016


Jet Collimation in the Ejecta of Double Neutron star Mergers: a new Canonical Picture of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, March 2014

  • Nagakura, Hiroki; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 784, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/784/2/L28

A short γ-ray burst apparently associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0.225
journal, October 2005

  • Gehrels, N.; Sarazin, C. L.; O'Brien, P. T.
  • Nature, Vol. 437, Issue 7060
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04142

THE SPECTRAL SN-GRB CONNECTION: SYSTEMATIC SPECTRAL COMPARISONS BETWEEN TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE AND BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE WITH AND WITHOUT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS
journal, November 2016


Spectra and Light Curves of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows
journal, April 1998

  • Sari, Re'em; Piran, Tsvi; Narayan, Ramesh
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 497, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/311269

Nuclear Ground-State Masses and Deformations
journal, March 1995

  • Moller, P.; Nix, J. R.; Myers, W. D.
  • Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, Vol. 59, Issue 2, p. 185-381
  • DOI: 10.1006/adnd.1995.1002

Delayed X-ray emission from fallback in compact-object mergers
journal, February 2009


Off-Axis Afterglow Emission from Jetted Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, May 2002

  • Granot, Jonathan; Panaitescu, Alin; Kumar, Pawan
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 570, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/340991

Nucleosynthesis, neutrino bursts and γ-rays from coalescing neutron stars
journal, July 1989

  • Eichler, David; Livio, Mario; Piran, Tsvi
  • Nature, Vol. 340, Issue 6229
  • DOI: 10.1038/340126a0

Line Strengths of Early-Type Galaxies
journal, May 2008

  • Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Pellegrini, Paulo S.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 135, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/135/6/2424

Grb 080503 late Afterglow Re-Brightening: Signature of a Magnetar-Powered Merger-Nova
journal, July 2015


Electromagnetic counterparts of compact object mergers powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei: Transients from compact object mergers
journal, June 2010


Detectability of compact binary merger macronovae
journal, April 2017


Networks of gravitational wave detectors and three figures of merit
journal, May 2011


Gamma-ray bursts and the fireball model
journal, June 1999


Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Broadband Fitting Based Directly on Hydrodynamics Simulations
journal, March 2012

  • van Eerten, Hendrik; van der Horst, Alexander; MacFadyen, Andrew
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 749, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/749/1/44

The Metamorphosis of SN 1998bw
journal, July 2001

  • Patat, Ferdinando; Cappellaro, Enrico; Danziger, John
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 555, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/321526

High precision X-ray log N – log S distributions: implications for the obscured AGN population
journal, October 2008


Optical-Near-Infrared Color Gradients and Merging History of Elliptical Galaxies
journal, March 2013


The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)
journal, February 2006

  • Skrutskie, M. F.; Cutri, R. M.; Stiening, R.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 131, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/498708

Galactic Stellar and Substellar Initial Mass Function
journal, July 2003

  • Chabrier, Gilles
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 115, Issue 809
  • DOI: 10.1086/376392

The Macronova in GRB 050709 and the GRB-macronova connection
journal, September 2016

  • Jin, Zhi-Ping; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Li, Xiang
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12898

Kmtnet: a Network of 1.6 m Wide-Field Optical Telescopes Installed at Three Southern Observatories
journal, February 2016

  • Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Park, Byeong-Gon
  • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society, Vol. 49, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5303/JKAS.2016.49.1.37

Radiation Transport for Explosive Outflows: a Multigroup Hybrid Monte Carlo Method
journal, November 2013

  • Wollaeger, Ryan T.; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Graziani, Carlo
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 209, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/209/2/36

Transient Events from Neutron Star Mergers
journal, November 1998

  • Li, Li-Xin; Paczyński, Bohdan
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 507, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/311680

Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, August 2014


Properties of X-ray rich gamma ray bursts and X-ray flashes detected with BeppoSAX and Hete-2
journal, September 2006


How to Tell a Jet from a Balloon: A Proposed Test for Beaming in Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, September 1997

  • Rhoads, James E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 487, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/310876

Gamma-Ray Bursts are Observed Off-Axis
journal, January 2015

  • Ryan, Geoffrey; van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 799, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/3

An Achromatic Break in the Afterglow of the Short grb 140903a: Evidence for a Narrow jet
journal, August 2016


Radioactivity and Thermalization in the Ejecta of Compact Object Mergers and Their Impact on Kilonova Light Curves
journal, September 2016


The Missing Link: Merging Neutron Stars Naturally Produce Jet-Like Structures and can Power Short Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, April 2011

  • Rezzolla, Luciano; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Baiotti, Luca
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 732, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/732/1/L6

A complete sample of bright Swift short gamma-ray bursts
journal, June 2014

  • D'Avanzo, P.; Salvaterra, R.; Bernardini, M. G.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 442, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu994

Measuring Reddening with Sloan Digital sky Survey Stellar Spectra and Recalibrating sfd
journal, August 2011


Stellar population synthesis at the resolution of 2003
journal, October 2003


Determining the Type, Redshift, and Age of a Supernova Spectrum
journal, September 2007

  • Blondin, Stephane; Tonry, John L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 666, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/520494

Afterglow light curves, viewing angle and the jet structure of  -ray bursts
journal, June 2002


Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Scaling Relations for the full Blast wave Evolution
journal, February 2012


Detectable radio flares following gravitational waves from mergers of binary neutron stars
journal, September 2011


Off-axis emission of short γ-ray bursts and the detectability of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational-wave-detected binary mergers
journal, July 2017

  • Lazzati, Davide; Deich, Alex; Morsony, Brian J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 471, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1683

The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes
journal, May 2015

  • Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Jr, J. Abdallah
  • Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 48, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/48/14/144014

X-Ray-Powered Macronovae
journal, February 2016


The long-term evolution of neutron star merger remnants – II. Radioactively powered transients
journal, January 2014

  • Grossman, Doron; Korobkin, Oleg; Rosswog, Stephan
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 439, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2503

A Complete Sample of Ultraluminous X-Ray Source host Galaxies
journal, October 2011

  • Swartz, Douglas A.; Soria, Roberto; Tennant, Allyn F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 741, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/741/1/49

Off-Axis Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Modeling Based on a Two-Dimensional Axisymmetric Hydrodynamics Simulation
journal, September 2010


Radiation Transport for Explosive Outflows: Opacity Regrouping
journal, October 2014

  • Wollaeger, Ryan T.; van Rossum, Daniel R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 214, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/214/2/28

GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral
journal, October 2017


An Ordinary Short Gamma-Ray Burst with Extraordinary Implications: Fermi -GBM Detection of GRB 170817A
journal, October 2017


INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817
journal, October 2017


Swope Supernova Survey 2017a (SSS17a), the optical counterpart to a gravitational wave source
journal, October 2017


Swift and NuSTAR observations of GW170817: Detection of a blue kilonova
journal, October 2017


A radio counterpart to a neutron star merger
journal, October 2017


Off-axis Prompt X-Ray Transients from the Cocoon of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, October 2017

  • Lazzati, Davide; López-Cámara, Diego; Cantiello, Matteo
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 848, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa8f3d

The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. V. Rising X-Ray Emission from an Off-axis Jet
journal, October 2017


A Deep Chandra X-Ray Study of Neutron Star Coalescence GW170817
journal, October 2017

  • Haggard, Daryl; Nynka, Melania; Ruan, John J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 848, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa8ede

The Emergence of a Lanthanide-rich Kilonova Following the Merger of Two Neutron Stars
journal, October 2017

  • Tanvir, N. R.; Levan, A. J.; González-Fernández, C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 848, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa90b6

The Environment of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817
journal, October 2017


A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source
journal, October 2017

  • Smartt, S. J.; Chen, T. -W.; Jerkstrand, A.
  • Nature, Vol. 551, Issue 7678
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature24303

Spectroscopic identification of r-process nucleosynthesis in a double neutron-star merger
journal, October 2017


Light curves of the neutron star merger GW170817/SSS17a: Implications for r-process nucleosynthesis
journal, October 2017


Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger
journal, October 2017


The cocoon emission – an electromagnetic counterpart to gravitational waves from neutron star mergers
journal, September 2017

  • Gottlieb, Ore; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 473, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2357

A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source
text, January 2017

  • Smartt, S. J.; Chen, T. -W.; Jerkstrand, A.
  • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
  • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2017-12239

GW170817: Observation of gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral
text, January 2017

  • Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.
  • American Physical Society
  • DOI: 10.5167/uzh-147231

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Binary neutron stars and production of heavy elements
    journal, January 2019

    • Matteucci, Francesca; Romano, Donatella; Cescutti, Gabriele
    • Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali, Vol. 30, Issue S1
    • DOI: 10.1007/s12210-018-0754-z

    Discovery of a kilonova and prospects for future hunts
    journal, January 2019


    INTEGRAL search for GW counterparts and the GRB170817A/GW170817 detection
    journal, February 2019

    • Ubertini, Pietro; Bazzano, A.; Natalucci, L.
    • Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali, Vol. 30, Issue S1
    • DOI: 10.1007/s12210-019-00767-y

    Kilonovae
    journal, December 2019


    An optimised gravitational wave follow-up strategy with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder
    journal, January 2019

    • Dobie, D.; Murphy, T.; Kaplan, D. L.
    • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Vol. 36
    • DOI: 10.1017/pasa.2019.9

    Spectroscopic identification of r-process nucleosynthesis in a double neutron-star merger
    journal, October 2017


    A peculiar low-luminosity short gamma-ray burst from a double neutron star merger progenitor
    journal, January 2018


    A luminous blue kilonova and an off-axis jet from a compact binary merger at z = 0.1341
    journal, October 2018


    The optical afterglow of the short gamma-ray burst associated with GW170817
    journal, July 2018


    The origin of polarization in kilonovae and the case of the gravitational-wave counterpart AT 2017gfo
    journal, November 2018


    Superluminal motion of a relativistic jet in the neutron-star merger GW170817
    journal, September 2018


    The origin of the first neutron star – neutron star merger
    journal, July 2018


    On-axis view of GRB 170817A
    journal, July 2019


    2900 Square Degree Search for the Optical Counterpart of Short Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 180523B with the Zwicky Transient Facility
    journal, February 2019

    • Coughlin, Michael W.; Ahumada, Tomás; Cenko, S. Bradley
    • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 131, Issue 998
    • DOI: 10.1088/1538-3873/aaff99

    Late-time evolution of afterglows from off-axis neutron star mergers
    journal, August 2018

    • Lamb, Gavin P.; Mandel, Ilya; Resmi, Lekshmi
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2196

    A long-lived neutron star merger remnant in GW170817: constraints and clues from X-ray observations
    journal, November 2018

    • Piro, L.; Troja, E.; Zhang, B.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 483, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty3047

    Implications of the radio and X-ray emission that followed GW170817
    journal, April 2018

    • Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 478, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty952

    Jet structure in the afterglow phase for gamma-ray bursts with a precessing jet
    journal, June 2019

    • Huang, Bao-Quan; Lin, Da-Bin; Liu, Tong
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1426

    Detectability of neutron star merger afterglows
    journal, July 2019

    • Gottlieb, Ore; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 488, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1906

    The host galaxies of double compact objects across cosmic time
    journal, September 2019

    • Toffano, Mattia; Mapelli, Michela; Giacobbo, Nicola
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 489, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2415

    Implications of the search for optical counterparts during the first six months of the Advanced LIGO’s and Advanced Virgo’s third observing run: possible limits on the ejecta mass and binary properties
    journal, December 2019

    • Coughlin, Michael W.; Dietrich, Tim; Antier, Sarah
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 492, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz3457

    Joint gravitational wave – gamma-ray burst detection rates in the aftermath of GW170817
    journal, February 2019

    • Howell, E. J.; Ackley, K.; Rowlinson, A.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 485, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz455

    A multiwavelength analysis of a collection of short-duration GRBs observed between 2012 and 2015
    journal, February 2019

    • Pandey, S. B.; Hu, Y.; Castro-Tirado, Ao J.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 485, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz530

    Imprints of r-process heating on fall-back accretion: distinguishing black hole–neutron star from double neutron star mergers
    journal, March 2019

    • Desai, D.; Metzger, B. D.; Foucart, F.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 485, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz644

    A luminosity distribution for kilonovae based on short gamma-ray burst afterglows
    journal, March 2019

    • Ascenzi, Stefano; Coughlin, Michael W.; Dietrich, Tim
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 486, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz891

    EM counterparts of structured jets from 3D GRMHD simulations
    journal, January 2019

    • Kathirgamaraju, Adithan; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Giannios, Dimitrios
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 484, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slz012

    First 100 ms of a long-lived magnetized neutron star formed in a binary neutron star merger
    journal, July 2019


    Full transport model of GW170817-like disk produces a blue kilonova
    journal, July 2019


    The properties of neutron star in the framework of relativistic Hartree–Fock model with unitary correlation operator method
    journal, November 2019

    • Zhang, Ying; Liu, Peng; Hu, Jinniu
    • International Journal of Modern Physics E, Vol. 28, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1142/s0218301319500940

    LOFAR 144-MHz follow-up observations of GW170817
    text, January 2020

    • Broderick, J. W.; Shimwell, T. W.; Gourdji, K.
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2020-02149

    Astrophysical Sites that Can Produce Enantiomeric Amino Acids
    journal, December 2018

    • Famiano, Michael; Boyd, Richard; Kajino, Toshitaka
    • Symmetry, Vol. 11, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3390/sym11010023

    Subsequent Nonthermal Emission Due to the Kilonova Ejecta in GW170817
    journal, January 2018


    A Pulsar Wind Nebula Model Applied to Short GRB 050724
    journal, March 2018


    Can We Distinguish Low-mass Black Holes in Neutron Star Binaries?
    journal, March 2018


    Short GRBs: Opening Angles, Local Neutron Star Merger Rate, and Off-axis Events for GRB/GW Association
    journal, April 2018


    An Empirical Study of Contamination in Deep, Rapid, and Wide-field Optical Follow-up of Gravitational Wave Events
    journal, April 2018


    Shock Acceleration of Electrons and Synchrotron Emission from the Dynamical Ejecta of Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, May 2018

    • Lee, Shiu-Hang; Maeda, Keiichi; Kawanaka, Norita
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 858, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aabaea

    A Long-lived Remnant Neutron Star after GW170817 Inferred from Its Associated Kilonova
    journal, July 2018


    A Simultaneous Search for Prompt Radio Emission Associated with the Short GRB 170112A Using the All-sky Imaging Capability of the OVRO-LWA
    journal, August 2018

    • Anderson, Marin M.; Hallinan, Gregg; Eastwood, Michael W.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 864, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aad2d7

    Low-frequency View of GW170817/GRB 170817A with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope
    journal, October 2018

    • Resmi, L.; Schulze, S.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 867, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aae1a6

    Constraining the Outflow Structure of the Binary Neutron Star Merger Event GW170817/GRB170817A with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo Analysis
    journal, December 2018


    Binary Neutron Star Mergers: Mass Ejection, Electromagnetic Counterparts, and Nucleosynthesis
    journal, December 2018

    • Radice, David; Perego, Albino; Hotokezaka, Kenta
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 869, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaf054

    Optical Follow-up of Gravitational-wave Events during the Second Advanced LIGO/VIRGO Observing Run with the DLT40 Survey
    journal, April 2019

    • Yang, Sheng; Sand, David J.; Valenti, Stefano
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 875, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab0e06

    GW170817: The Energy Extraction Process of the Off-axis Relativistic Outflow and the Constraint on the Equation of State of Neutron Stars
    journal, May 2019

    • Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Shao, Dong-Sheng; Jiang, Jin-Liang
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 877, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab1914

    Late-time Afterglow from Double-sided Structured Jets: Application to GRB 170817A
    journal, July 2019

    • Li, Long-Biao; Geng, Jin-Jun; Huang, Yong-Feng
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab275d

    Numerical Simulations of an Initially Top-hat Jet and the Afterglow of GW170817/GRB170817A
    journal, September 2019

    • Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan; Colle, Fabio De
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 883, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab3577

    Search for Gravitational-wave Signals Associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts during the Second Observing Run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo
    journal, November 2019


    Diversity of Kilonova Light Curves
    journal, February 2020

    • Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Shibata, Masaru; Tanaka, Masaomi
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 889, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab61f6

    Gamma Rays from Kilonova: A Potential Probe of r -process Nucleosynthesis
    journal, February 2020

    • Korobkin, Oleg; Hungerford, Aimee M.; Fryer, Christopher L.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 889, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab64d8

    Extended Calculations of Energy Levels and Transition Rates of Nd ii-iv Ions for Application to Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, February 2019

    • Gaigalas, Gediminas; Kato, Daiji; Rynkun, Pavel
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 240, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aaf9b8

    Swift -XRT Follow-up of Gravitational-wave Triggers in the Second Advanced LIGO/Virgo Observing Run
    journal, November 2019

    • Klingler, N. J.; Kennea, J. A.; Evans, P. A.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 245, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab4ea2

    INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817
    journal, October 2017


    The Environment of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817
    journal, October 2017


    GW170817: Joint Constraint on the Neutron Star Equation of State from Multimessenger Observations
    journal, January 2018

    • Radice, David; Perego, Albino; Zappa, Francesco
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 852, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaa402

    How Special Is GRB 170817A?
    journal, January 2018


    Continued Brightening of the Afterglow of GW170817/GRB 170817A as Being Due to a Delayed Energy Injection
    journal, May 2018


    GW170817 Most Likely Made a Black Hole
    journal, May 2018

    • Pooley, David; Kumar, Pawan; Wheeler, J. Craig
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 859, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aac3d6

    Fading of the X-Ray Afterglow of Neutron Star Merger GW170817/GRB 170817A at 260 Days
    journal, July 2018

    • Nynka, Melania; Ruan, John J.; Haggard, Daryl
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 862, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aad32d

    A Decline in the X-Ray through Radio Emission from GW170817 Continues to Support an Off-axis Structured Jet
    journal, August 2018

    • Alexander, K. D.; Margutti, R.; Blanchard, P. K.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 863, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aad637

    Radiative Transfer Simulation for the Optical and Near-infrared Electromagnetic Counterparts to GW170817
    journal, September 2018

    • Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Shibata, Masaru; Tanaka, Masaomi
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 865, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aade02

    Magnetically Inspired Explosive Outflows from Neutron-star Mergers
    journal, January 2019

    • Nathanail, Antonios; Porth, Oliver; Rezzolla, Luciano
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 870, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaf73a

    Time Delay between Neutrinos and Gamma-Rays in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts
    journal, January 2019


    A First Search for Prompt Radio Emission from a Gravitational-wave Event
    journal, June 2019

    • Callister, Thomas A.; Anderson, Marin M.; Hallinan, Gregg
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 877, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab2248

    GROWTH on S190426c: Real-time Search for a Counterpart to the Probable Neutron Star–Black Hole Merger using an Automated Difference Imaging Pipeline for DECam
    journal, August 2019

    • Goldstein, Daniel A.; Andreoni, Igor; Nugent, Peter E.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 881, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab3046

    Charged scalar-tensor solitons and black holes with (approximate) Anti-de Sitter asymptotics
    journal, January 2019


    Solitons and black hole in shift symmetric scalar-tensor gravity with cosmological constant
    journal, June 2018

    • Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti; Urrestilla, Jon
    • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2018, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1007/jhep06(2018)074

    A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW170817
    journal, December 2017

    • Mooley, K. P.; Nakar, E.; Hotokezaka, K.
    • Nature, Vol. 554, Issue 7691
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature25452

    Interpreting GRB170817A as a giant flare from a jet-less double neutron star merger
    journal, November 2018


    Spectral classification of gravitational-wave emission and equation of state constraints in binary neutron star mergers
    journal, September 2019

    • Bauswein, A.; Stergioulas, N.
    • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 46, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6471/ab2b90

    GW170817: implications for the local kilonova rate and for surveys from ground-based facilities
    journal, September 2018

    • Della Valle, M.; Guetta, D.; Cappellaro, E.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2541

    Outflows from black hole hyperaccretion systems: short and long-short gamma-ray bursts and ‘quasi-supernovae’
    journal, March 2018

    • Song, Cui-Ying; Liu, Tong; Li, Ang
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 477, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty783

    The Palomar Transient Factory Sky2Night programme
    journal, January 2019

    • van Roestel, J.; Groot, P. J.; Kupfer, T.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 484, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz241

    Optimizing multitelescope observations of gravitational-wave counterparts
    journal, September 2019

    • Coughlin, Michael W.; Antier, Sarah; Corre, David
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 489, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2485

    possis: predicting spectra, light curves, and polarization for multidimensional models of supernovae and kilonovae
    journal, September 2019

    • Bulla, M.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 489, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2495

    Non-thermal afterglow of the binary neutron star merger GW170817: a more natural modelling of electron energy distribution leads to a qualitatively different new solution
    journal, February 2019

    • Lin, Haoxiang; Totani, Tomonori; Kiuchi, Kenta
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 485, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz453

    The outflow structure of GW170817 from late-time broad-band observations
    journal, April 2018

    • Troja, E.; Piro, L.; Ryan, G.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 478, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/sly061

    Late Time Afterglow Observations Reveal a Collimated Relativistic Jet in the Ejecta of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817
    journal, June 2018


    A radio counterpart to a neutron star merger
    journal, October 2017


    Prospects for observing and localizing gravitational-wave transients with Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA
    text, January 2020

    • Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.
    • Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    • DOI: 10.17863/cam.57867

    Joint gravitational wave - gamma-ray burst detection rates in the aftermath of GW170817
    conference, January 2020

    • Howell, Eric; Ackley, Kendall; Rowlinson, Antonia
    • Proceedings of The New Era of Multi-Messenger Astrophysics — PoS(Asterics2019)
    • DOI: 10.22323/1.357.0035

    Detecting the Hadron-Quark Phase Transition with Gravitational Waves
    journal, June 2019


    The Origin of r -process Elements in the Milky Way
    journal, March 2018

    • Côté, Benoit; Fryer, Chris L.; Belczynski, Krzysztof
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 855, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaad67

    First Electromagnetic Pulse Associated with a Gravitational-wave Event: Profile, Duration, and Delay
    journal, March 2018


    Coincident Detection Significance in Multimessenger Astronomy
    journal, June 2018


    Is the Macronova in GW170817 Powered by the Central Engine?
    journal, July 2018

    • Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Ioka, Kunihito; Kisaka, Shota
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 861, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aac4a8

    Neutron Star Mergers are the Dominant Source of the r -process in the Early Evolution of Dwarf Galaxies
    journal, December 2018

    • Duggan, Gina E.; Kirby, Evan N.; Andrievsky, Serge M.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 869, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaeb8e

    Metal-poor Stars Observed with the Automated Planet Finder Telescope. I. Discovery of Five Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars from LAMOST
    journal, April 2019

    • Mardini, Mohammad K.; Li, Haining; Placco, Vinicius M.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 875, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab0fa2

    Census of the Local Universe (CLU) Narrowband Survey. I. Galaxy Catalogs from Preliminary Fields
    journal, July 2019

    • Cook, David O.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Sistine, Angela Van
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab2131

    Impact of Pulsar and Fallback Sources on Multifrequency Kilonova Models
    journal, July 2019

    • Wollaeger, Ryan T.; Fryer, Chris L.; Fontes, Christopher J.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab25f5

    Merger of Compact Stars in the Two-families Scenario
    journal, August 2019

    • Pietri, Roberto De; Drago, Alessandro; Feo, Alessandra
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 881, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab2fd0

    A Pulsar Wind Nebula Embedded in the Kilonova AT 2017gfo Associated with GW170817/GRB 170817A
    journal, October 2019


    The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. V. Rising X-Ray Emission from an Off-axis Jet
    journal, October 2017


    Estimating the Contribution of Dynamical Ejecta in the Kilonova Associated with GW170817
    journal, December 2017


    Constraining the Maximum Mass of Neutron Stars from Multi-messenger Observations of GW170817
    journal, November 2017


    A Precise Distance to the Host Galaxy of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 Using Surface Brightness Fluctuations
    journal, February 2018

    • Cantiello, Michele; Jensen, J. B.; Blakeslee, J. P.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 854, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaad64

    An Upper Limit on the Linear Polarization Fraction of the GW170817 Radio Continuum
    journal, July 2018

    • Corsi, Alessandra; Hallinan, Gregg W.; Lazzati, Davide
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 861, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aacdfd

    Californium-254 and Kilonova Light Curves
    journal, August 2018


    The Optical Afterglow of GW170817 at One Year Post-merger
    journal, January 2019


    GW170817 Afterglow Reveals that Short Gamma-Ray Bursts are Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, July 2019


    The Optical Afterglow of GW170817: An Off-axis Structured Jet and Deep Constraints on a Globular Cluster Origin
    journal, September 2019

    • Fong, W.; Blanchard, P. K.; Alexander, K. D.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 883, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab3d9e

    SN2018kzr: A Rapidly Declining Transient from the Destruction of a White Dwarf
    journal, October 2019

    • McBrien, Owen R.; Smartt, Stephen J.; Chen, Ting-Wan
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 885, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab4dae