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Title: Balancing formation time and electrochemical performance of high energy lithium-ion batteries

Abstract

Most lithium-ion batteries still rely on intercalation-type graphite materials for anodes, and the formation process for them typically takes several days or even more to provide a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The slow formation step results in lower LIB production rates, requires a large number of battery cyclers, and constitutes the second highest cost during battery manufacturing. In an effort to decrease the high manufacturing cost associated with long formation times, here we studied five different formation protocols in nickel-rich LiNi 0.8Mn 0.1Co 0.1O 2 (NMC811)/graphite cells where the total formation time varied from 10 to 86 h. Electrochemical characterization and post mortem analysis show that very long formation time do not necessarily improve long-term performance while very short formation protocols result in lithium plating and poorer electrochemical performance. Finally, we find the optimum formation cycling protocol is intermediate in length to minimize impedance growth, improve capacity retention, and avoid lithium plating.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1479760
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 402; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; fast formation; Ni-rich cathode; cycling stability; Li-ion battery; solid electrolyte interphase; lithium plating

Citation Formats

Mao, Chengyu, An, Seong Jin, Meyer, Harry M., Li, Jianlin, Wood, Marissa, Ruther, Rose E., and Wood, David L. Balancing formation time and electrochemical performance of high energy lithium-ion batteries. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.09.019.
Mao, Chengyu, An, Seong Jin, Meyer, Harry M., Li, Jianlin, Wood, Marissa, Ruther, Rose E., & Wood, David L. Balancing formation time and electrochemical performance of high energy lithium-ion batteries. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.09.019.
Mao, Chengyu, An, Seong Jin, Meyer, Harry M., Li, Jianlin, Wood, Marissa, Ruther, Rose E., and Wood, David L. Tue . "Balancing formation time and electrochemical performance of high energy lithium-ion batteries". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.09.019. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1479760.
@article{osti_1479760,
title = {Balancing formation time and electrochemical performance of high energy lithium-ion batteries},
author = {Mao, Chengyu and An, Seong Jin and Meyer, Harry M. and Li, Jianlin and Wood, Marissa and Ruther, Rose E. and Wood, David L.},
abstractNote = {Most lithium-ion batteries still rely on intercalation-type graphite materials for anodes, and the formation process for them typically takes several days or even more to provide a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The slow formation step results in lower LIB production rates, requires a large number of battery cyclers, and constitutes the second highest cost during battery manufacturing. In an effort to decrease the high manufacturing cost associated with long formation times, here we studied five different formation protocols in nickel-rich LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811)/graphite cells where the total formation time varied from 10 to 86 h. Electrochemical characterization and post mortem analysis show that very long formation time do not necessarily improve long-term performance while very short formation protocols result in lithium plating and poorer electrochemical performance. Finally, we find the optimum formation cycling protocol is intermediate in length to minimize impedance growth, improve capacity retention, and avoid lithium plating.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.09.019},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = ,
volume = 402,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

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