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Title: Suppressing defects through the synergistic effect of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells

Achieving long-term operational stability at a high efficiency level for perovskite solar cells is the most challenging issue toward commercialization of this emerging photovoltaic technology. Here, we investigated the cooperation of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid by combining commercial bis-PCBM mixed isomers as the Lewis acid in the antisolvent and N-(4-bromophenyl)thiourea (BrPh-ThR) as the Lewis base in the perovskite solution precursor. The combination of the Lewis base and the Lewis acid synergistically passivates Pb 2+ and PbX 3– antisite defects, enlarges the perovskite grain size, and improves charge-carrier separation and transport, leading to improved device efficiency from 19.3% to 21.7%. In addition, this Lewis base and acid combination also suppresses moisture incursion and passivates pinholes generated in the hole-transporting layer. Furthermore, the unsealed devices remained at 93% of the initial efficiency value in ambient air (10–20% relative humidity) after 3600 h at 20–25 °C and dropped by 10% after 1500 h under continuous operation at 1-sun illumination and 55 °C in nitrogen with maximum power-point tracking.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [3] ; ORCiD logo [4] ;  [3]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland)
  2. Sun Yat-sen Univ., Guangzhou (People's Republic of China)
  3. Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland)
  4. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5900-71829
Journal ID: ISSN 1754-5692; EESNBY
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energy & Environmental Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Energy & Environmental Science; Journal ID: ISSN 1754-5692
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; perovskite solar cells; stability; efficiency; photovoltaics; Lewis base; Lewis acid
OSTI Identifier:
1478732
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1478267

Zhang, Fei, Bi, Dongqin, Pellet, Norman, Xiao, Chuanxiao, Li, Zhen, Berry, Joseph J., Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed, Zhu, Kai, and Grätzel, Michael. Suppressing defects through the synergistic effect of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1039/C8EE02252F.
Zhang, Fei, Bi, Dongqin, Pellet, Norman, Xiao, Chuanxiao, Li, Zhen, Berry, Joseph J., Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed, Zhu, Kai, & Grätzel, Michael. Suppressing defects through the synergistic effect of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. United States. doi:10.1039/C8EE02252F.
Zhang, Fei, Bi, Dongqin, Pellet, Norman, Xiao, Chuanxiao, Li, Zhen, Berry, Joseph J., Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed, Zhu, Kai, and Grätzel, Michael. 2018. "Suppressing defects through the synergistic effect of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells". United States. doi:10.1039/C8EE02252F.
@article{osti_1478732,
title = {Suppressing defects through the synergistic effect of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells},
author = {Zhang, Fei and Bi, Dongqin and Pellet, Norman and Xiao, Chuanxiao and Li, Zhen and Berry, Joseph J. and Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed and Zhu, Kai and Grätzel, Michael},
abstractNote = {Achieving long-term operational stability at a high efficiency level for perovskite solar cells is the most challenging issue toward commercialization of this emerging photovoltaic technology. Here, we investigated the cooperation of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid by combining commercial bis-PCBM mixed isomers as the Lewis acid in the antisolvent and N-(4-bromophenyl)thiourea (BrPh-ThR) as the Lewis base in the perovskite solution precursor. The combination of the Lewis base and the Lewis acid synergistically passivates Pb2+ and PbX3– antisite defects, enlarges the perovskite grain size, and improves charge-carrier separation and transport, leading to improved device efficiency from 19.3% to 21.7%. In addition, this Lewis base and acid combination also suppresses moisture incursion and passivates pinholes generated in the hole-transporting layer. Furthermore, the unsealed devices remained at 93% of the initial efficiency value in ambient air (10–20% relative humidity) after 3600 h at 20–25 °C and dropped by 10% after 1500 h under continuous operation at 1-sun illumination and 55 °C in nitrogen with maximum power-point tracking.},
doi = {10.1039/C8EE02252F},
journal = {Energy & Environmental Science},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor-Assisted Solution Process
journal, December 2013
  • Chen, Qi; Zhou, Huanping; Hong, Ziruo
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 136, Issue 2, p. 622-625
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Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition
journal, September 2013
  • Liu, Mingzhen; Johnston, Michael B.; Snaith, Henry J.
  • Nature, Vol. 501, Issue 7467, p. 395-398
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