skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A Survey of Protocol-Level Challenges and Solutions for Distributed Energy Resource Cyber-Physical Security

Abstract

Here, the increasing proliferation of distributed energy resources (DERs) on the smart grid has made distributed solar and wind two key contributors to the expanding attack surface of the network; however, there is a lack of proper understanding and enforcement of DER communications security requirements. With vendors employing proprietary methods to mitigate hosts of attacks, the literature currently lacks a clear organization of the protocol-level vulnerabilities, attacks, and solutions mapped to each layer of the logical model such as the OSI stack. To bridge this gap and pave the way for future research by the authors in determining key DER security requirements, this paper conducts a comprehensive review of the key vulnerabilities, attacks, and potential solutions for solar and wind DERs at the protocol level. In doing so, this paper serves as a starting point for utilities, vendors, aggregators, and other industry stakeholders to develop a clear understanding of the DER security challenges and solutions, which are key precursors to comprehending security requirements.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)
  2. Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)
  3. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1478184
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5C00-72612
Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1073; ENERGA
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energies (Basel)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Energies (Basel); Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1073
Publisher:
MDPI AG
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; DER; photovoltaic; wind turbine; communications; protocols; SCADA; standards; enforcement; challenges; solutions; security requirements

Citation Formats

Sundararajan, Aditya, Chavan, Aniket, Saleem, Danish, and Sarwat, Arif I. A Survey of Protocol-Level Challenges and Solutions for Distributed Energy Resource Cyber-Physical Security. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3390/en11092360.
Sundararajan, Aditya, Chavan, Aniket, Saleem, Danish, & Sarwat, Arif I. A Survey of Protocol-Level Challenges and Solutions for Distributed Energy Resource Cyber-Physical Security. United States. doi:10.3390/en11092360.
Sundararajan, Aditya, Chavan, Aniket, Saleem, Danish, and Sarwat, Arif I. Thu . "A Survey of Protocol-Level Challenges and Solutions for Distributed Energy Resource Cyber-Physical Security". United States. doi:10.3390/en11092360. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1478184.
@article{osti_1478184,
title = {A Survey of Protocol-Level Challenges and Solutions for Distributed Energy Resource Cyber-Physical Security},
author = {Sundararajan, Aditya and Chavan, Aniket and Saleem, Danish and Sarwat, Arif I.},
abstractNote = {Here, the increasing proliferation of distributed energy resources (DERs) on the smart grid has made distributed solar and wind two key contributors to the expanding attack surface of the network; however, there is a lack of proper understanding and enforcement of DER communications security requirements. With vendors employing proprietary methods to mitigate hosts of attacks, the literature currently lacks a clear organization of the protocol-level vulnerabilities, attacks, and solutions mapped to each layer of the logical model such as the OSI stack. To bridge this gap and pave the way for future research by the authors in determining key DER security requirements, this paper conducts a comprehensive review of the key vulnerabilities, attacks, and potential solutions for solar and wind DERs at the protocol level. In doing so, this paper serves as a starting point for utilities, vendors, aggregators, and other industry stakeholders to develop a clear understanding of the DER security challenges and solutions, which are key precursors to comprehending security requirements.},
doi = {10.3390/en11092360},
journal = {Energies (Basel)},
number = 9,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The importance of testing Smart Grid IEDs against security vulnerabilities
conference, April 2016

  • Weerathunga, Pubudu Eroshan; Cioraca, Anca
  • 2016 69th Annual Conference for Protective Relay Engineers (CPRE)
  • DOI: 10.1109/CPRE.2016.7914920

Improving Network Infrastructure Security by Partitioning Networks Running Spanning Tree Protocol
conference, January 2006

  • Yeung, K. H.; Yan, F.; Leung, C.
  • International Conference on Internet Surveillance and Protection (ICISP’06)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICISP.2006.13

A Survey of Ethernet LAN Security
journal, October 2013


Internet of Things (IoT) communication protocols: Review
conference, May 2017

  • Al-Sarawi, Shadi; Anbar, Mohammed; Alieyan, Kamal
  • 2017 8th International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICITECH.2017.8079928

A review on security and privacy issues in wireless sensor networks
conference, May 2017

  • SunilKumar, K. N.
  • 2017 2nd IEEE International Conference on Recent Trends in Electronics, Information & Communication Technology (RTEICT)
  • DOI: 10.1109/RTEICT.2017.8256945

OSI upper layer protocol requirements for TMN operations
conference, January 1988

  • Raman, L. G.
  • IEEE INFOCOM '88,Seventh Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communcations Societies. Networks: Evolution or Revolution?
  • DOI: 10.1109/INFCOM.1988.12912

Malicious JavaScript Insertion through ARP Poisoning Attacks
journal, May 2009


Research based on OSI model
conference, May 2011

  • Li, Yadong; Li, Danlan; Cui, Wenqiang
  • 2011 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICCSN.2011.6014631

Development of unidirectional security gateway appliance using intel 82580EB NIC interface
conference, October 2016

  • Heo, Youngjun; Na, Jungchan
  • 2016 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICTC.2016.7763404

Rapid migration of VMs on a datacenter under cyber attack over optical infrastructure
conference, October 2016


Short Paper: IP spoofing detection for preventing DDoS attack in Cloud Computing
conference, January 2015

  • Osanaiye, Opeyemi A.
  • 2015 18th International Conference on Intelligence in Next Generation Networks (ICIN)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICIN.2015.7073820

Integrated TCP/IP protocol software testing for vulnerability detection
conference, January 2003

  • Shu Xiao,
  • 2003 International Conference on Computer Networks and Mobile Computing. ICCNMC 2003, 2003 International Conference on Computer Networks and Mobile Computing, 2003. ICCNMC 2003.
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICCNMC.2003.1243061

Integrity based relationships and trustworthy communication between network participants
conference, June 2014

  • Oberle, Alexander; Larbig, Pedro; Kuntze, Nicolai
  • ICC 2014 - 2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICC.2014.6883386

Cyber intrusion of wind farm SCADA system and its impact analysis
conference, March 2011

  • Yan, Jie; Liu, Chen-Ching; Govindarasu, Manimaran
  • 2011 IEEE/PES Power Systems Conference and Exposition (PSCE)
  • DOI: 10.1109/PSCE.2011.5772593

Light weight approach for IP-ARP spoofing detection and prevention
conference, November 2011

  • Bhirud, S. G.; Katkar, Vijay
  • 2011 Second Asian Himalayas International Conference on Internet (AH-ICI)
  • DOI: 10.1109/AHICI.2011.6113951

FTTH network survivability security based on massive fiber optic mechanical switch in consolidated central office
conference, July 2010

  • Young Wuk Lee,
  • 2010 9th International Conference on the Optical Internet (COIN), Digest of the 9th International Conference on Optical Internet (COIN 2010)
  • DOI: 10.1109/COIN.2010.5546557

Security features in ethernet switches for access networks
conference, January 2003

  • Guruprasad, A.; Pandey, P.; Prashant, B.
  • TENCON 2003. Conference on Convergent Technologies for Asia-Pacific Region
  • DOI: 10.1109/TENCON.2003.1273439

Comparative Evaluation of Spoofing Defenses
journal, March 2011

  • Mirkovic, Jelena; Kissel, Ezra
  • IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, Vol. 8, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TDSC.2009.44

An improved secret key update for multiple intersymbol obfuscation in physical layer security
conference, September 2017

  • Ramnath, Deepika; Deepak, Tejas; Krishnakumar, Kiran
  • 2017 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICACCI.2017.8125839

The Security and Promotion Method of Transport Layer of TCP/IP Agreement
conference, July 2010

  • Hao-yu, Wang; Hui-zhi, Cao; Xu, Zhu
  • 2010 2nd International Conference on Information Technology and Computer Science (ITCS 2010), 2010 Second International Conference on Information Technology and Computer Science
  • DOI: 10.1109/ITCS.2010.132

Transport Level Address for application level communication
conference, August 2009

  • De Silva, Suranjith
  • 2009 2nd IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICCSIT.2009.5234954

Quantum Cryptography For Secure Optical Networks
conference, June 2007

  • Kartalopoulos, S. V.
  • 2007 IEEE International Conference on Communications
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICC.2007.221

Building blocks of a simulation environment of the OSI network layer of packet-switching networks
conference, January 2003

  • Gerisch, A.; Lawniczak, A. T.; Di Stefano, B.
  • CCECE 2003 - Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering. Toward a Caring and Humane Technology (Cat. No.03CH37436)
  • DOI: 10.1109/CCECE.2003.1226080

Telecommunication traffic through submarine cables: Security and vulnerabilities
conference, December 2016

  • Alazri, Aisha Suliaman
  • 2016 11th International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICITST.2016.7856733

A Survey of Man In The Middle Attacks
journal, October 2016

  • Conti, Mauro; Dragoni, Nicola; Lesyk, Viktor
  • IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. 18, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/COMST.2016.2548426

Data security on Ethernet LANs
conference, January 1998

  • Hadjina, N.; Thompson, P.
  • 10th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference - MELECON 2000, 2000 10th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference. Information Technology and Electrotechnology for the Mediterranean Countries. Proceedings. MeleCon 2000 (Cat. No.00CH37099)
  • DOI: 10.1109/MELCON.2000.880359

A comprehensive study on security attacks on SSL/TLS protocol
conference, October 2016

  • Sirohi, Preeti; Agarwal, Amit; Tyagi, Sapna
  • 2016 2nd International Conference on Next Generation Computing Technologies (NGCT)
  • DOI: 10.1109/NGCT.2016.7877537

A survey on security assessment of metering infrastructure in Smart Grid systems
conference, April 2015


End-to-end encryption at the network layer
conference, January 1990

  • Nelson, R.
  • [1989 Proceedings] Fifth Annual Computer Security Applications Conference
  • DOI: 10.1109/CSAC.1989.81020

Primary frequency control and dynamic grid support for vehicle-to-grid in transmission systems
journal, September 2018

  • Hernández, J. C.; Sanchez-Sutil, F.; Vidal, P. G.
  • International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 100
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2018.02.019

Wireless transmission of RS232 interface signal based on ZigBee
conference, July 2010

  • Luo, Guoxin
  • 2010 International Conference on Anti-Counterfeiting, Security and Identification (2010 ASID)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICASID.2010.5551491

A Thin Security Layer Protocol over IP Protocol on TCP/IP Suite for Security Enhancement
conference, November 2006


Analysis and application of Wireshark in TCP/IP protocol teaching
conference, April 2010

  • Shaoqiang Wang,
  • 2010 International Conference on E-Health Networking, Digital Ecosystems and Technologies (EDT), 2010 International Conference on E-Health Networking Digital Ecosystems and Technologies (EDT)
  • DOI: 10.1109/EDT.2010.5496372

Transport layer proxy for stateful UDP packet filtering
conference, January 2002

  • Chang, R. K. C.; Fung, K. P.
  • Proceedings ISCC 2002 Seventh International Symposium on Computers and Communications
  • DOI: 10.1109/ISCC.2002.1021735

Controlling IP Spoofing through Interdomain Packet Filters
journal, January 2008

  • Zhenhai Duan, ; Chandrashekar, J.
  • IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/TDSC.2007.70224

Research on the network security based on radiated virus
conference, October 2010

  • Shangjie Hu,
  • 2010 International Conference on Information, Networking and Automation (ICINA 2010), 2010 International Conference on Information, Networking and Automation (ICINA)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICINA.2010.5636462

Enhanced utility-scale photovoltaic units with frequency support functions and dynamic grid support for transmission systems
journal, February 2017

  • Hernández, Jesus C.; Bueno, Pedro G.; Sanchez-Sutil, Francisco
  • IET Renewable Power Generation, Vol. 11, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1049/iet-rpg.2016.0714

Smart grids security challenges: Classification by sources of threats
journal, December 2018

  • Otuoze, Abdulrahaman Okino; Mustafa, Mohd Wazir; Larik, Raja Masood
  • Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 5, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jesit.2018.01.001

A link-layer-based self-replicating vulnerability discovery agent
conference, June 2010

  • Al-Salloum, Ziyad S.; Wolthusen, Stephen D.
  • 2010 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), The IEEE symposium on Computers and Communications
  • DOI: 10.1109/ISCC.2010.5546723

Fairness issues for mixed TCP/OSI internets
conference, January 1991


Communications Link Layer Security
conference, November 2006


Performance Comparison of TCP, UDP, and TFRC in Wired Networks
conference, February 2015

  • Pakanati, Chennareddy; Padmavathamma, M.; Reddy, N. Ramanjaneya
  • 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence & Communication Technology (CICT)
  • DOI: 10.1109/CICT.2015.37

Cyber security vulnerability assessment for Smart substations
conference, October 2016


Traffic flow confidentiality security service in OSI computer network architecture
conference, January 1990

  • Ramaswamy, R.
  • IEEE TENCON'90: 1990 IEEE Region 10 Conference on Computer and Communication Systems. Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1109/TENCON.1990.152690

Security in the OSI model
journal, January 1988


An interactive visualization tool for teaching ARP spoofing attack
conference, October 2017

  • Scott, Brandon; Xu, Jinsheng; Zhang, Jinghua
  • 2017 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE)
  • DOI: 10.1109/FIE.2017.8190531

Adaptive cross-layer-based TCP congestion control for 4G wireless mobile cloud access
conference, May 2016

  • Chang, Ben-Jye; Liang, Ying-Hsin; Jin, Jun-Yu
  • 2016 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics-Taiwan (ICCE-TW)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICCE-TW.2016.7520952

A security standard for LANs
conference, January 1990

  • Kirkpatrick, M. E.
  • [1989 Proceedings] Fifth Annual Computer Security Applications Conference
  • DOI: 10.1109/CSAC.1989.81019

OSI Reference Model--The ISO Model of Architecture for Open Systems Interconnection
journal, April 1980


Cross layer approach for detection and prevention of Sinkhole Attack using a mobile agent
conference, October 2017

  • Aryai, S.; Binu, G. S.
  • 2017 2nd International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES)
  • DOI: 10.1109/CESYS.2017.8321299

Packet scheduling attacks on shipboard networked control systems
conference, August 2015


Cyber-power system security in a smart grid environment
conference, January 2012

  • Stefanov, Alexandru; Liu, Chen-Ching
  • 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ISGT.2012.6175560

Security Implications of Transport Layer Protocols in Power Grid Synchrophasor Data Communication
journal, January 2015


Authenticated anonymous secure on demand routing protocol in VANET (Vehicular adhoc network)
conference, February 2017

  • Logeshwari, K.; Lakshmanan, L.
  • 2017 International Conference on Information Communication and Embedded Systems (ICICES)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICICES.2017.8070730

Smart Home Communication Technologies and Applications: Wireless Protocol Assessment for Home Area Network Resources
journal, July 2015

  • Mendes, Tiago; Godina, Radu; Rodrigues, Eduardo
  • Energies, Vol. 8, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.3390/en8077279

Cyber attack models for smart grid environments
journal, December 2017

  • Eder-Neuhauser, Peter; Zseby, Tanja; Fabini, Joachim
  • Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks, Vol. 12
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.segan.2017.08.002

Detecting SIP flooding attacks on IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
conference, January 2012

  • Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Wushao; Yu, Da
  • 2012 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICCNC.2012.6167401

Electric Utility Enterprise Architecture to Support the Smart Grid - Enterprise Architecture for the Smart Grid [Electric Utility Enterprise Architecture to Support the Smart Grid - Enterprise Architecture for the Smart Grid]
conference, September 2014

  • Parra, I.; Rodríguez, A.; Arroyo-Figueroa, G.
  • Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics
  • DOI: 10.5220/0005014006730679

Cyber security attacks on network with transition mechanisms
conference, December 2015

  • Narayan, Shaneel; Gupta, Ruchinav; Kumar, Avinesh
  • 2015 International Conference on Computing and Network Communications (CoCoNet)
  • DOI: 10.1109/CoCoNet.2015.7411182

Defending mechanisms for protecting power systems against intelligent attacks
conference, May 2015

  • Wei, Longfei; Moghadasi, Amir Hasan; Sundararajan, Aditya
  • 2015 10th System of Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE)
  • DOI: 10.1109/SYSOSE.2015.7151941

An open network management architecture: OSI/NM Forum architecture and concepts
journal, July 1990

  • Embry, J.; Manson, P.; Milham, D.
  • IEEE Network, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/65.56547

What protection engineers need to know about networking
conference, March 2015

  • Cioraca, Anca; Voloh, Ilia; Adamiak, Mark
  • 2015 68th Annual Conference for Protective Relay Engineers
  • DOI: 10.1109/CPRE.2015.7102197

A survey on ARP cache poisoning and techniques for detection and mitigation
conference, March 2017

  • Meghana, Jitta Sai; Subashri, T.; Vimal, K. R.
  • 2017 Fourth International Conference on Signal Processing,Communication and Networking (ICSCN), 2017 Fourth International Conference on Signal Processing, Communication and Networking (ICSCN)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICSCN.2017.8085417

UDP based chat application
conference, April 2010

  • Malhotra, Akshit; Sharma, Vaibhav; Gandhi, Prateek
  • 2010 2nd International Conference on Computer Engineering and Technology
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICCET.2010.5486192

Analysis of low-rate TCP DoS attack against FAST TCP
conference, October 2006

  • Dong, Kuo; Yang, Shoubao; Wang, Shaolin
  • 2006 6th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications, Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications
  • DOI: 10.1109/ISDA.2006.12

Research on the effects of transport protocols on the application performance based on OPNET
conference, June 2016

  • Cai, Lei; Pan, Yun; Guo, Yi-Lin
  • 2016 IEEE/ACIS 15th International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICIS.2016.7550936

Real time test bed development for power system operation, control and cyber security
conference, September 2010

  • Ram Mohan Reddi, ; Srivastava, Anurag K.
  • 2010 North American Power Symposium (NAPS 2010), North American Power Symposium 2010
  • DOI: 10.1109/NAPS.2010.5618985

Design of framework and analysis of Internet of things at data link layer
conference, August 2017

  • Sharma, Geetika; Pandey, Nitin; Hussain, Iqra
  • 2017 2nd International Conference on Telecommunication and Networks (TEL-NET)
  • DOI: 10.1109/TEL-NET.2017.8343520

Context Information based Cyber Security Defense of Protection System
conference, June 2007

  • Su, Sheng; Duan, Xianzhong; Zeng, Xiangjun
  • 2007 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting
  • DOI: 10.1109/PES.2007.385649

Analysis of UDP DDoS flood cyber attack and defense mechanisms on Web Server with Linux Ubuntu 13
conference, February 2015

  • Kolahi, Samad S.; Treseangrat, Kiattikul; Sarrafpour, Bahman
  • 2015 International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and their Applications (ICCSPA), 2015 International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and their Applications (ICCSPA'15)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICCSPA.2015.7081286

Powerful IEDs, ethernet networks and their effects on IEC 61850-based electric power utilities security
conference, November 2017

  • Hadbah, A.; Kalam, A.; Zayegh, Aladin
  • 2017 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/AUPEC.2017.8282415

Orchestration of reliable three-layer networks
conference, July 2017

  • Zhen Lu, ; Shakeri, Ali; Razo, Miguel
  • 2017 19th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICTON.2017.8024938

Security problems in the TCP/IP protocol suite
journal, April 1989


Maximizing Ethernet Security by Switch-Based Single Secure Domain
conference, April 2010

  • Wahid, Khan Ferdous
  • 2010 Seventh International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations
  • DOI: 10.1109/ITNG.2010.143

Secure group communication schemes for dynamic heterogeneous distributed computing
journal, September 2017


An Architecture for Multi-Security Level Network Traffic
conference, October 2006

  • Witzke, Edward; Gossage, Steve; Wiener, Dallas
  • Proceedings 40th Annual 2006 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology
  • DOI: 10.1109/CCST.2006.313455

IP network-based trust management system
conference, July 2011

  • Wang, Yan-hong
  • 2011 Eighth International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD 2011), 2011 Eighth International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD)
  • DOI: 10.1109/FSKD.2011.6019936

Demystifying and Rate Limiting ICMP hosted DoS/DDoS Flooding Attacks with Attack Productivity Analysis
conference, March 2009