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Title: Unconventional Relation between Charge Transport and Photocurrent via Boosting Small Polaron Hopping for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

Doping in semiconductor photoelectrodes controls defect formation and carrier transport that critically determine the device performance. Here we report an unconventional carrier transport relation that is tuned by extrinsic molybdenum (Mo) doping in BiVO 4 photoanodes. Using the single-crystalline thin film approach, we identify that Mo doping significantly condenses the optimization regime between carrier transport and photon collection. For Mo-doped BiVO 4 films, an unprecedentedly thin layer (50 nm), less than one-third of the pristine BiVO 4 thickness, delivers larger photocurrents by overcoming the charge transport limitation, representing a regime not covered in conventional models. We provide direct evidence that Mo doping improves electron transport by boosting not only the donor density but also the electron mobility in the form of a small polaron, with the latter applying substantial impact on the photoelectrochemical performance. Density functional theory calculations reveal that fully ionized Mo dopants establish a strong electrostatic interaction with a small polaron, which helps reduce its hopping barrier by minimizing the local lattice expansion. Here, our results deliver mechanistic insights on the interplay between extrinsic doping and carrier transport, and provide guidance in developing advanced semiconductor photoelectrodes.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)
  2. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Dept.
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
BNL-209194-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2380-8195
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Energy Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 2380-8195
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY
OSTI Identifier:
1477962

Zhang, Wenrui, Wu, Feng, Li, Jun, Yan, Danhua, Tao, Jing, Ping, Yuan, and Liu, Mingzhao. Unconventional Relation between Charge Transport and Photocurrent via Boosting Small Polaron Hopping for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.8b01445.
Zhang, Wenrui, Wu, Feng, Li, Jun, Yan, Danhua, Tao, Jing, Ping, Yuan, & Liu, Mingzhao. Unconventional Relation between Charge Transport and Photocurrent via Boosting Small Polaron Hopping for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. United States. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.8b01445.
Zhang, Wenrui, Wu, Feng, Li, Jun, Yan, Danhua, Tao, Jing, Ping, Yuan, and Liu, Mingzhao. 2018. "Unconventional Relation between Charge Transport and Photocurrent via Boosting Small Polaron Hopping for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting". United States. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.8b01445.
@article{osti_1477962,
title = {Unconventional Relation between Charge Transport and Photocurrent via Boosting Small Polaron Hopping for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting},
author = {Zhang, Wenrui and Wu, Feng and Li, Jun and Yan, Danhua and Tao, Jing and Ping, Yuan and Liu, Mingzhao},
abstractNote = {Doping in semiconductor photoelectrodes controls defect formation and carrier transport that critically determine the device performance. Here we report an unconventional carrier transport relation that is tuned by extrinsic molybdenum (Mo) doping in BiVO4 photoanodes. Using the single-crystalline thin film approach, we identify that Mo doping significantly condenses the optimization regime between carrier transport and photon collection. For Mo-doped BiVO4 films, an unprecedentedly thin layer (50 nm), less than one-third of the pristine BiVO4 thickness, delivers larger photocurrents by overcoming the charge transport limitation, representing a regime not covered in conventional models. We provide direct evidence that Mo doping improves electron transport by boosting not only the donor density but also the electron mobility in the form of a small polaron, with the latter applying substantial impact on the photoelectrochemical performance. Density functional theory calculations reveal that fully ionized Mo dopants establish a strong electrostatic interaction with a small polaron, which helps reduce its hopping barrier by minimizing the local lattice expansion. Here, our results deliver mechanistic insights on the interplay between extrinsic doping and carrier transport, and provide guidance in developing advanced semiconductor photoelectrodes.},
doi = {10.1021/acsenergylett.8b01445},
journal = {ACS Energy Letters},
number = 9,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}