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Title: Luminescence methodology to determine grain-boundary, grain-interior, and surface recombination in thin-film solar cells

Abstract

We determine the grain-boundary (GB) recombination velocity, S GB, and grain-interior (GI) lifetime, t GI, parameters in superstrate CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cell technology by combining cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum imaging and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements. We consider critical device formation stages, including after CdTe deposition, CdCl 2 treatment, and Cu diffusion. CL image analysis methods extract GB and GI intensities and grain size for hundreds of grains per sample. Concurrently, a three-dimensional CL model is developed to simulate the GI intensity as a function of t GI, S GB, grain size, and the surface recombination velocity, S surf. TRPL measurements provide an estimate of S surf for the CL model. A fit of GI intensity vs. grain size data with the CL model gives a self-consistent and representative set of S GB and t GI values for the samples: S GB (t GI) = 2.6 x 10 6 cm/s (68-250 ps), S GB(t GI) = 4.1 x 10 5 cm/s (1.5-3.3 ns), and S GB (t GI) = 5.5 x 10 5 cm/s (1.0-3.8 ns) for as-deposited, CdCl 2-treated, and CdCl 2- A nd Cu-treated samples, respectively. Thus, we find that the CdCl2 treatment both helps to passivate GBs and significantlymore » increase the GI lifetime. Subsequent Cu diffusion increases GB recombination slightly and has nuanced effects on the GI lifetime. Finally, as a partial check on the S GB and t GI values, they are input to a Sentaurus device model, and the simulated performance is compared to the measured performance. The methodology developed here can be applied broadly to CdTe and CdSeTe thin-film technology and to other thin-film solar cell materials including Cu(In 1-xGa x)Se 2, Cu 2ZnSnS 4, and perovskites.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CNRS, University Paris-Sud/Paris-Saclay, 91460 Marcoussis, France
  3. Univ. of Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1477833
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1471258
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-71546
Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308; 30297; 30300
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 124; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; thin films; luminescence; solar cells; semiconductors; scanning electron microscopy; crystallographic defects; electrical properties and parameters

Citation Formats

Moseley, John, Rale, Pierre, Collin, Stéphane, Colegrove, Eric, Guthrey, Harvey, Kuciauskas, Darius, Moutinho, Helio, Al-Jassim, Mowafak, and Metzger, Wyatt K. Luminescence methodology to determine grain-boundary, grain-interior, and surface recombination in thin-film solar cells. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5042532.
Moseley, John, Rale, Pierre, Collin, Stéphane, Colegrove, Eric, Guthrey, Harvey, Kuciauskas, Darius, Moutinho, Helio, Al-Jassim, Mowafak, & Metzger, Wyatt K. Luminescence methodology to determine grain-boundary, grain-interior, and surface recombination in thin-film solar cells. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5042532.
Moseley, John, Rale, Pierre, Collin, Stéphane, Colegrove, Eric, Guthrey, Harvey, Kuciauskas, Darius, Moutinho, Helio, Al-Jassim, Mowafak, and Metzger, Wyatt K. Tue . "Luminescence methodology to determine grain-boundary, grain-interior, and surface recombination in thin-film solar cells". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5042532. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1477833.
@article{osti_1477833,
title = {Luminescence methodology to determine grain-boundary, grain-interior, and surface recombination in thin-film solar cells},
author = {Moseley, John and Rale, Pierre and Collin, Stéphane and Colegrove, Eric and Guthrey, Harvey and Kuciauskas, Darius and Moutinho, Helio and Al-Jassim, Mowafak and Metzger, Wyatt K.},
abstractNote = {We determine the grain-boundary (GB) recombination velocity, SGB, and grain-interior (GI) lifetime, tGI, parameters in superstrate CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cell technology by combining cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum imaging and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements. We consider critical device formation stages, including after CdTe deposition, CdCl2 treatment, and Cu diffusion. CL image analysis methods extract GB and GI intensities and grain size for hundreds of grains per sample. Concurrently, a three-dimensional CL model is developed to simulate the GI intensity as a function of tGI, SGB, grain size, and the surface recombination velocity, Ssurf. TRPL measurements provide an estimate of Ssurf for the CL model. A fit of GI intensity vs. grain size data with the CL model gives a self-consistent and representative set of SGB and tGI values for the samples: SGB (tGI) = 2.6 x 106 cm/s (68-250 ps), SGB(tGI) = 4.1 x 105 cm/s (1.5-3.3 ns), and SGB (tGI) = 5.5 x 105 cm/s (1.0-3.8 ns) for as-deposited, CdCl2-treated, and CdCl2- A nd Cu-treated samples, respectively. Thus, we find that the CdCl2 treatment both helps to passivate GBs and significantly increase the GI lifetime. Subsequent Cu diffusion increases GB recombination slightly and has nuanced effects on the GI lifetime. Finally, as a partial check on the SGB and tGI values, they are input to a Sentaurus device model, and the simulated performance is compared to the measured performance. The methodology developed here can be applied broadly to CdTe and CdSeTe thin-film technology and to other thin-film solar cell materials including Cu(In1-xGax)Se2, Cu2ZnSnS4, and perovskites.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5042532},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 11,
volume = 124,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Basic features of the 3D CL model. The e-beam is generating carriers in the center of a cylindrical grain. The grain “size” is defined by the diameter, $d$, and the film thickness is $t$. The grain interior (GI) has carrier lifetime, $\mathcal{τ}$GI; the grain boundary (GB) has recombinationmore » velocity, $S$GB; and the surface has recombination velocity, $S$surf.« less

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