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Title: Considerable contribution of the Montreal Protocol to declining greenhouse gas emissions from the United States

Ozone depleting substances (ODSs) controlled by the Montreal Protocol are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), as are their substitutes, the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Here we provide for the first time a comprehensive estimate of U.S. emissions of ODSs and HFCs based on precise measurements in discrete air samples from across North America and in the remote atmosphere. Derived emissions show spatial and seasonal variations qualitatively consistent with known uses and largely confirm U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) national emissions inventories for most gases. The measurement-based results further indicate a substantial decline of ODS emissions from 2008 to 2014, equivalent to ~50% of the CO 2-equivalent decline in combined emissions of CO 2 and all other long-lived GHGs inventoried by the EPA for the same period. Total estimated CO 2-equivalent emissions of HFCs were comparable to the sum of ODS emissions in 2014, but can be expected to decline in the future in response to recent policy measures.
Authors:
 [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [5] ;  [5] ; ORCiD logo [6] ; ORCiD logo [7] ; ORCiD logo [8] ; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab., Global Monitoring Division
  2. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab., Global Monitoring Division
  3. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research
  4. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),Washington, DC (United States). Stratospheric Protection Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Office of Air and Radiation
  5. Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Lexington, MA (United States)
  6. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Technologies Area
  7. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Area
  8. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands). Centre for Isotope Research
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 15; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
OSTI Identifier:
1476525
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1374927

Hu, Lei, Montzka, Stephen A., Lehman, Scott J., Godwin, David S., Miller, Benjamin R., Andrews, Arlyn E., Thoning, Kirk, Miller, John B., Sweeney, Colm, Siso, Caroline, Elkins, James W., Hall, Bradley D., Mondeel, Debra J., Nance, David, Nehrkorn, Thomas, Mountain, Marikate, Fischer, Marc L., Biraud, Sébastien C., Chen, Huilin, and Tans, Pieter P.. Considerable contribution of the Montreal Protocol to declining greenhouse gas emissions from the United States. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1002/2017GL074388.
Hu, Lei, Montzka, Stephen A., Lehman, Scott J., Godwin, David S., Miller, Benjamin R., Andrews, Arlyn E., Thoning, Kirk, Miller, John B., Sweeney, Colm, Siso, Caroline, Elkins, James W., Hall, Bradley D., Mondeel, Debra J., Nance, David, Nehrkorn, Thomas, Mountain, Marikate, Fischer, Marc L., Biraud, Sébastien C., Chen, Huilin, & Tans, Pieter P.. Considerable contribution of the Montreal Protocol to declining greenhouse gas emissions from the United States. United States. doi:10.1002/2017GL074388.
Hu, Lei, Montzka, Stephen A., Lehman, Scott J., Godwin, David S., Miller, Benjamin R., Andrews, Arlyn E., Thoning, Kirk, Miller, John B., Sweeney, Colm, Siso, Caroline, Elkins, James W., Hall, Bradley D., Mondeel, Debra J., Nance, David, Nehrkorn, Thomas, Mountain, Marikate, Fischer, Marc L., Biraud, Sébastien C., Chen, Huilin, and Tans, Pieter P.. 2017. "Considerable contribution of the Montreal Protocol to declining greenhouse gas emissions from the United States". United States. doi:10.1002/2017GL074388. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1476525.
@article{osti_1476525,
title = {Considerable contribution of the Montreal Protocol to declining greenhouse gas emissions from the United States},
author = {Hu, Lei and Montzka, Stephen A. and Lehman, Scott J. and Godwin, David S. and Miller, Benjamin R. and Andrews, Arlyn E. and Thoning, Kirk and Miller, John B. and Sweeney, Colm and Siso, Caroline and Elkins, James W. and Hall, Bradley D. and Mondeel, Debra J. and Nance, David and Nehrkorn, Thomas and Mountain, Marikate and Fischer, Marc L. and Biraud, Sébastien C. and Chen, Huilin and Tans, Pieter P.},
abstractNote = {Ozone depleting substances (ODSs) controlled by the Montreal Protocol are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), as are their substitutes, the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Here we provide for the first time a comprehensive estimate of U.S. emissions of ODSs and HFCs based on precise measurements in discrete air samples from across North America and in the remote atmosphere. Derived emissions show spatial and seasonal variations qualitatively consistent with known uses and largely confirm U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) national emissions inventories for most gases. The measurement-based results further indicate a substantial decline of ODS emissions from 2008 to 2014, equivalent to ~50% of the CO2-equivalent decline in combined emissions of CO2 and all other long-lived GHGs inventoried by the EPA for the same period. Total estimated CO2-equivalent emissions of HFCs were comparable to the sum of ODS emissions in 2014, but can be expected to decline in the future in response to recent policy measures.},
doi = {10.1002/2017GL074388},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
number = 15,
volume = 44,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {8}
}