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Title: Understanding the critical chemistry to inhibit lithium consumption in lean lithium metal composite anodes

Abstract

Lithium metal has been deemed by many as the “Holy Grail” of anode materials due to its high theoretical capacity (~3860 mA h g -1), redox potential of -3.040 V vs. SHE, and light weight. The goal of this work is to investigate the relationship between a lean lithium metal anode and its consumption as a function of host materials, electrochemical protocol and electrolyte composition. With the use of carbon nanofibers, lithium metal has been electrodeposited onto the host matrix and used in a battery with a LiNi 0.6Mn 0.2Co 0.2O 2 cathode. The mass-loading of lithium can be easily controlled and utilized to investigate the practicality of an anode limited battery (i.e., limited lithium with an effective thickness <15 μm) in a high surface area matrix. We then quantify the consumption rate of active lithium using different electrolyte additives and current rates in full cells and observe that the lithium consumption behavior in an anode-limited cell is different from that in an anode-excess cell. Our results highlight the necessity of applying truly lithium-limited cells when evaluating the electrochemical properties of lithium anodes and electrolyte additives. By extending this method to a standard graphite host, full cells can retain 75%more » of their initial capacities after 1000 cycles. The present study demonstrates the importance of graphitic carbon in increasing the lifespan of limited lithium (<15 μm) for practical lithium metal batteries.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [3];  [1]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  2. Southwest Forestry Univ., Kunming (China). National Joint Engineering Research Center for Highly-Efficient Utilization Technology of Forest Biomass Resources and College of Materials Science and Engineering
  3. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL)
  4. Southwest Forestry Univ., Kunming (China). National Joint Engineering Research Center for Highly-Efficient Utilization Technology of Forest Biomass Resources and College of Materials Science and Engineering; Xiamen Univ. (China). College of Energy and Fujian Engineering and Research Center of Clean and High-Valued Technologies for Biomass
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Scientific User Facilities Division; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC)
OSTI Identifier:
1476323
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 31160147; 2014FA034; 2017YFD0601003
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry. A
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 33; Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Kautz, David J., Tao, Lei, Mu, Linqin, Nordlund, Dennis, Feng, Xu, Zheng, Zhifeng, and Lin, Feng. Understanding the critical chemistry to inhibit lithium consumption in lean lithium metal composite anodes. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1039/c8ta01715h.
Kautz, David J., Tao, Lei, Mu, Linqin, Nordlund, Dennis, Feng, Xu, Zheng, Zhifeng, & Lin, Feng. Understanding the critical chemistry to inhibit lithium consumption in lean lithium metal composite anodes. United States. doi:10.1039/c8ta01715h.
Kautz, David J., Tao, Lei, Mu, Linqin, Nordlund, Dennis, Feng, Xu, Zheng, Zhifeng, and Lin, Feng. Tue . "Understanding the critical chemistry to inhibit lithium consumption in lean lithium metal composite anodes". United States. doi:10.1039/c8ta01715h. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1476323.
@article{osti_1476323,
title = {Understanding the critical chemistry to inhibit lithium consumption in lean lithium metal composite anodes},
author = {Kautz, David J. and Tao, Lei and Mu, Linqin and Nordlund, Dennis and Feng, Xu and Zheng, Zhifeng and Lin, Feng},
abstractNote = {Lithium metal has been deemed by many as the “Holy Grail” of anode materials due to its high theoretical capacity (~3860 mA h g-1), redox potential of -3.040 V vs. SHE, and light weight. The goal of this work is to investigate the relationship between a lean lithium metal anode and its consumption as a function of host materials, electrochemical protocol and electrolyte composition. With the use of carbon nanofibers, lithium metal has been electrodeposited onto the host matrix and used in a battery with a LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 cathode. The mass-loading of lithium can be easily controlled and utilized to investigate the practicality of an anode limited battery (i.e., limited lithium with an effective thickness <15 μm) in a high surface area matrix. We then quantify the consumption rate of active lithium using different electrolyte additives and current rates in full cells and observe that the lithium consumption behavior in an anode-limited cell is different from that in an anode-excess cell. Our results highlight the necessity of applying truly lithium-limited cells when evaluating the electrochemical properties of lithium anodes and electrolyte additives. By extending this method to a standard graphite host, full cells can retain 75% of their initial capacities after 1000 cycles. The present study demonstrates the importance of graphitic carbon in increasing the lifespan of limited lithium (<15 μm) for practical lithium metal batteries.},
doi = {10.1039/c8ta01715h},
journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry. A},
number = 33,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Characterization of the pristine CNF: (a) SEM image of the pristine CNF porous matrix structure, (b) Raman spectrum of the pristine CNF, (c) FTIR spectrum of the pristine CNF, (d and e) TEM images of the pristine CNF at two different magnifications , and (f) electron diffraction patternmore » of the pristine CNF showing the amorphous characteristics of the CNF.« less

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.