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Title: Processing-induced strain glass states in a Ni 49.5 Ti 50.5 shape memory alloy

Abstract

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) represent a revolutionary and innovative class of active materials which can provide potential solutions to many of today's engineering problems due to their compact form, high energy densities, and multifunctional capabilities. While many applications in the biomedical, aerospace, and automotive industries have already been investigated and realized for Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) based SMAs, the effects of restricting the ferroelastic transformation to nanosized domains is not well understood and the potential remains untapped. In binary NiTi, the martensitic transformation, which is characterized by long-range strain ordering (LRO), can be replaced with a strain glass transition, which consists of an LRO parent phase and a short-range strain ordered glassy phase. Such alloys have been named strain glass alloys (SGAs) due to the fact that they exhibit a glassy state which results from compositionally- or processing-induced strain. While SGAs do not exhibit a stress-free, temperature-induced macroscopic phase change, they still exhibit the strain recovery and actuation capabilities intrinsic to near equiatomic NiTi and other SMAs. It has been shown in the available literature that certain compositions, for example 51.5 at. % Nickel in binary NiTi, can create a strain glass; however, these compositionally-induced NiTi SGAs generally have transformation temperatures belowmore » 173 K and this will restrict their practical applications. In the present study, a new method for producing a strain glass phase in Ti-rich NiTi through sufficient plastic deformation via cold work is reported; the resulting SGA exhibits a temperature-induced ferroelastic recovery above room temperature. Additionally, the macroscopic actuation capabilities are improved when compared to both compositionally-induced SGAs and the base material due to the increased functional stresses of the SGA. To better understand the transition from an SMA to an SGA, Ni49.5Ti50.5 (at. %) rods were processed to several degrees of cold work and characterized via scanning and transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermomechanical testing, and synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction. The experimental results indicate that twin size decreases with additional cold work and, around 45% thickness reduction, stress-free thermal cycling no longer results in a measurable phase transformation; however, mechanically-induced phase transformation is still possible, where fully recoverable strains in these SGAs were observed to be above 4.5% when loaded at room temperature and recovered at 150 °C.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Army Research Lab., Adelphi, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1476099
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02- 06CH11357]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 113; Journal Issue: 13]; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Glass transitions; Shape memory effect; Differential scanning calorimetry; Deformation; Thermomechanical analysis; Transmission electron microscopy; Smart materials; Transition metals; Phase transitions; Ferroelasticity

Citation Formats

Wheeler, Robert W., Smith, Jesse, Ley, Nathan A., Giri, Anit, and Young, Marcus L. Processing-induced strain glass states in a Ni 49.5 Ti 50.5 shape memory alloy. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5049871.
Wheeler, Robert W., Smith, Jesse, Ley, Nathan A., Giri, Anit, & Young, Marcus L. Processing-induced strain glass states in a Ni 49.5 Ti 50.5 shape memory alloy. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5049871.
Wheeler, Robert W., Smith, Jesse, Ley, Nathan A., Giri, Anit, and Young, Marcus L. Mon . "Processing-induced strain glass states in a Ni 49.5 Ti 50.5 shape memory alloy". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5049871. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1476099.
@article{osti_1476099,
title = {Processing-induced strain glass states in a Ni 49.5 Ti 50.5 shape memory alloy},
author = {Wheeler, Robert W. and Smith, Jesse and Ley, Nathan A. and Giri, Anit and Young, Marcus L.},
abstractNote = {Shape memory alloys (SMAs) represent a revolutionary and innovative class of active materials which can provide potential solutions to many of today's engineering problems due to their compact form, high energy densities, and multifunctional capabilities. While many applications in the biomedical, aerospace, and automotive industries have already been investigated and realized for Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) based SMAs, the effects of restricting the ferroelastic transformation to nanosized domains is not well understood and the potential remains untapped. In binary NiTi, the martensitic transformation, which is characterized by long-range strain ordering (LRO), can be replaced with a strain glass transition, which consists of an LRO parent phase and a short-range strain ordered glassy phase. Such alloys have been named strain glass alloys (SGAs) due to the fact that they exhibit a glassy state which results from compositionally- or processing-induced strain. While SGAs do not exhibit a stress-free, temperature-induced macroscopic phase change, they still exhibit the strain recovery and actuation capabilities intrinsic to near equiatomic NiTi and other SMAs. It has been shown in the available literature that certain compositions, for example 51.5 at. % Nickel in binary NiTi, can create a strain glass; however, these compositionally-induced NiTi SGAs generally have transformation temperatures below 173 K and this will restrict their practical applications. In the present study, a new method for producing a strain glass phase in Ti-rich NiTi through sufficient plastic deformation via cold work is reported; the resulting SGA exhibits a temperature-induced ferroelastic recovery above room temperature. Additionally, the macroscopic actuation capabilities are improved when compared to both compositionally-induced SGAs and the base material due to the increased functional stresses of the SGA. To better understand the transition from an SMA to an SGA, Ni49.5Ti50.5 (at. %) rods were processed to several degrees of cold work and characterized via scanning and transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermomechanical testing, and synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction. The experimental results indicate that twin size decreases with additional cold work and, around 45% thickness reduction, stress-free thermal cycling no longer results in a measurable phase transformation; however, mechanically-induced phase transformation is still possible, where fully recoverable strains in these SGAs were observed to be above 4.5% when loaded at room temperature and recovered at 150 °C.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5049871},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = [13],
volume = [113],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

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