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Title: Energy loss due to defect formation from 206Pb recoils in SuperCDMS germanium detectors

Abstract

The Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment (SuperCDMS) at the Soudan Underground Laboratory studied energy loss associated with Frenkel defect formation in germanium crystals at mK temperatures using in situ $$^{210}$$Pb sources. We examine the spectrum of $$^{206}$$Pb nuclear recoils near its expected 103 keV endpoint energy and determine an energy loss of $$\left(6.08\pm0.18\right)$$ %, which we attribute to defect formation. From this result and using TRIM simulations, we extract the first experimentally determined average displacement threshold energy of $$\left(19.7^{+0.6}_{-0.5}\right)$$ eV for germanium. This has implications for the analysis thresholds of future germanium-based dark matter searches.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [11];  [12];  [3];  [13];  [2];  [12];  [2] more »;  [7];  [14];  [15];  [14];  [16];  [15];  [7];  [14];  [14];  [14];  [2];  [5];  [16];  [4];  [8]; ORCiD logo [17];  [6];  [12];  [6];  [3];  [7];  [5]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [4];  [18]; ORCiD logo [8];  [19];  [5];  [7];  [7];  [10];  [5];  [6];  [5];  [7]; ORCiD logo [4];  [19];  [19]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [11];  [9];  [15];  [12];  [14];  [20];  [16];  [1];  [21];  [22];  [7];  [1];  [23];  [9]; ORCiD logo [19];  [10];  [24]; ORCiD logo [6];  [15];  [15]; ORCiD logo [12];  [10];  [25];  [5];  [14]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [19];  [15];  [5];  [25]; ORCiD logo [5];  [3];  [11];  [26];  [14];  [5] « less
  1. Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
  2. Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
  3. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA
  4. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
  5. Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&,M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
  6. School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, HBNI, Jatni 752050, India
  7. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
  8. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA
  9. Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069, USA
  10. Department of Physics, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701, USA
  11. Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
  12. Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275, USA
  13. Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, United Kingdom; Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
  14. Department of Physics, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada
  15. Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
  16. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3112, USA
  17. Department of Physics, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado 80217, USA; Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado 80217, USA
  18. Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, United Kingdom
  19. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada; TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3, Canada
  20. Department of Physics, University of Evansville, Evansville, Indiana 47722, USA
  21. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado 80217, USA
  22. Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7, Canada
  23. Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
  24. SNOLAB, Creighton Mine #9, 1039 Regional Road 24, Sudbury, Ontario P3Y 1N2, Canada
  25. Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7, Canada
  26. Department of Physics, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California 95053, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
SuperCDMS; SuperCDMS Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1475487
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1462732; OSTI ID: 1466865
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1805.09942; FERMILAB-PUB-18-291-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951; 1674960
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; AC02-76SF00515; AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 113; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; SuperCDMS; Frenkel defects; displacement threshold energy; germanium detectors; dark matter; cryogenic

Citation Formats

Agnese, R., Aralis, T., Aramaki, T., Arnquist, I. J., Azadbakht, E., Baker, W., Banik, S., Barker, D., Bauer, D. A., Binder, T., Bowles, M. A., Brink, P. L., Bunker, R., Cabrera, B., Calkins, R., Cartaro, C., Cerdenõ, D. G., Chang, Y. -Y., Cooley, J., Cornell, B., Cushman, P., Di Stefano, P. C. F., Doughty, T., Fascione, E., Figueroa-Feliciano, E., Fink, C. W., Fritts, M., Gerbier, G., Germond, R., Ghaith, M., Golwala, S. R., Harris, H. R., Hong, Z., Hoppe, E. W., Hsu, L., Huber, M. E., Iyer, V., Jardin, D., Jena, C., Kelsey, M. H., Kennedy, A., Kubik, A., Kurinsky, N. A., Lawrence, R. E., Loer, B., Lopez Asamar, E., Lukens, P., MacDonell, D., Mahapatra, R., Mandic, V., Mast, N., Miller, E. H., Mirabolfathi, N., Mohanty, B., Morales Mendoza, J. D., Nelson, J., Orrell, J. L., Oser, S. M., Page, W. A., Partridge, R., Pepin, M., Ponce, F., Poudel, S., Pyle, M., Qiu, H., Rau, W., Reisetter, A., Ren, T., Reynolds, T., Roberts, A., Robinson, A. E., Rogers, H. E., Saab, T., Sadoulet, B., Sander, J., Scarff, A., Schnee, R. W., Scorza, S., Senapati, K., Serfass, B., Speller, D., Stein, M., Street, J., Tanaka, H. A., Toback, D., Underwood, R., Villano, A. N., von Krosigk, B., Watkins, S. L., Wilson, J. S., Wilson, M. J., Winchell, J., Wright, D. H., Yellin, S., Young, B. A., Zhang, X., and Zhao, X. Energy loss due to defect formation from 206Pb recoils in SuperCDMS germanium detectors. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5041457.
Agnese, R., Aralis, T., Aramaki, T., Arnquist, I. J., Azadbakht, E., Baker, W., Banik, S., Barker, D., Bauer, D. A., Binder, T., Bowles, M. A., Brink, P. L., Bunker, R., Cabrera, B., Calkins, R., Cartaro, C., Cerdenõ, D. G., Chang, Y. -Y., Cooley, J., Cornell, B., Cushman, P., Di Stefano, P. C. F., Doughty, T., Fascione, E., Figueroa-Feliciano, E., Fink, C. W., Fritts, M., Gerbier, G., Germond, R., Ghaith, M., Golwala, S. R., Harris, H. R., Hong, Z., Hoppe, E. W., Hsu, L., Huber, M. E., Iyer, V., Jardin, D., Jena, C., Kelsey, M. H., Kennedy, A., Kubik, A., Kurinsky, N. A., Lawrence, R. E., Loer, B., Lopez Asamar, E., Lukens, P., MacDonell, D., Mahapatra, R., Mandic, V., Mast, N., Miller, E. H., Mirabolfathi, N., Mohanty, B., Morales Mendoza, J. D., Nelson, J., Orrell, J. L., Oser, S. M., Page, W. A., Partridge, R., Pepin, M., Ponce, F., Poudel, S., Pyle, M., Qiu, H., Rau, W., Reisetter, A., Ren, T., Reynolds, T., Roberts, A., Robinson, A. E., Rogers, H. E., Saab, T., Sadoulet, B., Sander, J., Scarff, A., Schnee, R. W., Scorza, S., Senapati, K., Serfass, B., Speller, D., Stein, M., Street, J., Tanaka, H. A., Toback, D., Underwood, R., Villano, A. N., von Krosigk, B., Watkins, S. L., Wilson, J. S., Wilson, M. J., Winchell, J., Wright, D. H., Yellin, S., Young, B. A., Zhang, X., & Zhao, X. Energy loss due to defect formation from 206Pb recoils in SuperCDMS germanium detectors. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5041457.
Agnese, R., Aralis, T., Aramaki, T., Arnquist, I. J., Azadbakht, E., Baker, W., Banik, S., Barker, D., Bauer, D. A., Binder, T., Bowles, M. A., Brink, P. L., Bunker, R., Cabrera, B., Calkins, R., Cartaro, C., Cerdenõ, D. G., Chang, Y. -Y., Cooley, J., Cornell, B., Cushman, P., Di Stefano, P. C. F., Doughty, T., Fascione, E., Figueroa-Feliciano, E., Fink, C. W., Fritts, M., Gerbier, G., Germond, R., Ghaith, M., Golwala, S. R., Harris, H. R., Hong, Z., Hoppe, E. W., Hsu, L., Huber, M. E., Iyer, V., Jardin, D., Jena, C., Kelsey, M. H., Kennedy, A., Kubik, A., Kurinsky, N. A., Lawrence, R. E., Loer, B., Lopez Asamar, E., Lukens, P., MacDonell, D., Mahapatra, R., Mandic, V., Mast, N., Miller, E. H., Mirabolfathi, N., Mohanty, B., Morales Mendoza, J. D., Nelson, J., Orrell, J. L., Oser, S. M., Page, W. A., Partridge, R., Pepin, M., Ponce, F., Poudel, S., Pyle, M., Qiu, H., Rau, W., Reisetter, A., Ren, T., Reynolds, T., Roberts, A., Robinson, A. E., Rogers, H. E., Saab, T., Sadoulet, B., Sander, J., Scarff, A., Schnee, R. W., Scorza, S., Senapati, K., Serfass, B., Speller, D., Stein, M., Street, J., Tanaka, H. A., Toback, D., Underwood, R., Villano, A. N., von Krosigk, B., Watkins, S. L., Wilson, J. S., Wilson, M. J., Winchell, J., Wright, D. H., Yellin, S., Young, B. A., Zhang, X., and Zhao, X. Mon . "Energy loss due to defect formation from 206Pb recoils in SuperCDMS germanium detectors". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5041457.
@article{osti_1475487,
title = {Energy loss due to defect formation from 206Pb recoils in SuperCDMS germanium detectors},
author = {Agnese, R. and Aralis, T. and Aramaki, T. and Arnquist, I. J. and Azadbakht, E. and Baker, W. and Banik, S. and Barker, D. and Bauer, D. A. and Binder, T. and Bowles, M. A. and Brink, P. L. and Bunker, R. and Cabrera, B. and Calkins, R. and Cartaro, C. and Cerdenõ, D. G. and Chang, Y. -Y. and Cooley, J. and Cornell, B. and Cushman, P. and Di Stefano, P. C. F. and Doughty, T. and Fascione, E. and Figueroa-Feliciano, E. and Fink, C. W. and Fritts, M. and Gerbier, G. and Germond, R. and Ghaith, M. and Golwala, S. R. and Harris, H. R. and Hong, Z. and Hoppe, E. W. and Hsu, L. and Huber, M. E. and Iyer, V. and Jardin, D. and Jena, C. and Kelsey, M. H. and Kennedy, A. and Kubik, A. and Kurinsky, N. A. and Lawrence, R. E. and Loer, B. and Lopez Asamar, E. and Lukens, P. and MacDonell, D. and Mahapatra, R. and Mandic, V. and Mast, N. and Miller, E. H. and Mirabolfathi, N. and Mohanty, B. and Morales Mendoza, J. D. and Nelson, J. and Orrell, J. L. and Oser, S. M. and Page, W. A. and Partridge, R. and Pepin, M. and Ponce, F. and Poudel, S. and Pyle, M. and Qiu, H. and Rau, W. and Reisetter, A. and Ren, T. and Reynolds, T. and Roberts, A. and Robinson, A. E. and Rogers, H. E. and Saab, T. and Sadoulet, B. and Sander, J. and Scarff, A. and Schnee, R. W. and Scorza, S. and Senapati, K. and Serfass, B. and Speller, D. and Stein, M. and Street, J. and Tanaka, H. A. and Toback, D. and Underwood, R. and Villano, A. N. and von Krosigk, B. and Watkins, S. L. and Wilson, J. S. and Wilson, M. J. and Winchell, J. and Wright, D. H. and Yellin, S. and Young, B. A. and Zhang, X. and Zhao, X.},
abstractNote = {The Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment (SuperCDMS) at the Soudan Underground Laboratory studied energy loss associated with Frenkel defect formation in germanium crystals at mK temperatures using in situ $^{210}$Pb sources. We examine the spectrum of $^{206}$Pb nuclear recoils near its expected 103 keV endpoint energy and determine an energy loss of $\left(6.08\pm0.18\right)$ %, which we attribute to defect formation. From this result and using TRIM simulations, we extract the first experimentally determined average displacement threshold energy of $\left(19.7^{+0.6}_{-0.5}\right)$ eV for germanium. This has implications for the analysis thresholds of future germanium-based dark matter searches.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5041457},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 9,
volume = 113,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Ambient stability of chemically passivated germanium interfaces
journal, October 2003


Growth of native oxide on a silicon surface
journal, August 1990

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