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Title: An intermediate temperature garnet-type solid electrolyte-based molten lithium battery for grid energy storage

Batteries are an attractive grid energy storage technology, but a reliable battery system with the functionalities required for a grid such as high power capability, high safety and low cost remains elusive. Here, we report a solid electrolyte-based molten lithium battery constructed with a molten lithium anode, a molten Sn–Pb or Bi–Pb alloy cathode and a garnet-type Li 6.4La 3Zr 1.4Ta 0.6O 12 (LLZTO) solid electrolyte tube. We show that the assembled Li||LLZTO||Sn–Pb and Li||LLZTO||Bi–Pb cells can stably cycle at an intermediate temperature of 240 °C for about one month at current densities of 50 mA cm –2 and 100 mA cm –2 respectively, with almost no capacity decay and an average Coulombic efficiency of 99.98%. Furthermore, the cells demonstrate high power capability with current densities up to 300 mA cm –2 (90 mW cm –2) for Li||LLZTO||Sn–Pb and 500 mA cm –2 (175 mW cm –2) for Li||LLZTO||Bi–Pb. Lastly, our design offers prospects for grid energy storage with intermediate temperature operations, high safety margin and low capital and maintenance costs.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [4]
  1. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Zhengzhou Univ., Zhengzhou (China)
  2. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)
  3. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  4. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 2058-7546
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE
OSTI Identifier:
1475485

Jin, Yang, Liu, Kai, Lang, Jialiang, Zhuo, Denys, Huang, Zeya, Wang, Chang-an, Wu, Hui, and Cui, Yi. An intermediate temperature garnet-type solid electrolyte-based molten lithium battery for grid energy storage. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0198-9.
Jin, Yang, Liu, Kai, Lang, Jialiang, Zhuo, Denys, Huang, Zeya, Wang, Chang-an, Wu, Hui, & Cui, Yi. An intermediate temperature garnet-type solid electrolyte-based molten lithium battery for grid energy storage. United States. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0198-9.
Jin, Yang, Liu, Kai, Lang, Jialiang, Zhuo, Denys, Huang, Zeya, Wang, Chang-an, Wu, Hui, and Cui, Yi. 2018. "An intermediate temperature garnet-type solid electrolyte-based molten lithium battery for grid energy storage". United States. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0198-9.
@article{osti_1475485,
title = {An intermediate temperature garnet-type solid electrolyte-based molten lithium battery for grid energy storage},
author = {Jin, Yang and Liu, Kai and Lang, Jialiang and Zhuo, Denys and Huang, Zeya and Wang, Chang-an and Wu, Hui and Cui, Yi},
abstractNote = {Batteries are an attractive grid energy storage technology, but a reliable battery system with the functionalities required for a grid such as high power capability, high safety and low cost remains elusive. Here, we report a solid electrolyte-based molten lithium battery constructed with a molten lithium anode, a molten Sn–Pb or Bi–Pb alloy cathode and a garnet-type Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 (LLZTO) solid electrolyte tube. We show that the assembled Li||LLZTO||Sn–Pb and Li||LLZTO||Bi–Pb cells can stably cycle at an intermediate temperature of 240 °C for about one month at current densities of 50 mA cm–2 and 100 mA cm–2 respectively, with almost no capacity decay and an average Coulombic efficiency of 99.98%. Furthermore, the cells demonstrate high power capability with current densities up to 300 mA cm–2 (90 mW cm–2) for Li||LLZTO||Sn–Pb and 500 mA cm–2 (175 mW cm–2) for Li||LLZTO||Bi–Pb. Lastly, our design offers prospects for grid energy storage with intermediate temperature operations, high safety margin and low capital and maintenance costs.},
doi = {10.1038/s41560-018-0198-9},
journal = {Nature Energy},
number = 9,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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