skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Results from the Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) experiment

Abstract

We report the Atacama B-mode Search is an experiment designed to measure the cosmic microwave background polarization at large angular scales (0ℓ>4). It observes at 145 GHz from a site at 5,190 m elevation in northern Chile. The noise equivalent polarization temperature, or NEQ, is 41 μK√s. One of the unique features of ABS is its use of a rapidly rotating ambient-temperature half-wave plate (HWP) {as the first optical element}. {The HWP spins} at 2.55 Hz to modulate the incident polarized signal at frequencies above where instrument white noise dominates over atmospheric fluctuations and other sources of low-frequency noise. We report here on the analysis of data from a 2,400 deg 2 region of sky. We perform a blind analysis to reduce potential bias. After unblinding, we find agreement with the Planck TE and EE measurements on the same region of sky, {with a derived calibration factor of 00.89 ± 0.1}. We marginally detect polarized dust emission {(at 3.2 σ for EE and 2.2 σ for BB)} and give an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r<2.3 (95% confidence level) with the equivalent of 100 on-sky days of observation. Finally, we also present a new measurement of the polarizationmore » of Tau A and introduce new methods for calibration and data analysis associated with HWP-based observations.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [7];  [4];  [8];  [9];  [4];  [7];  [10];  [7];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [7];  [5] more »; ORCiD logo [14];  [15];  [4];  [16];  [17];  [7];  [7];  [6] « less
  1. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
  2. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  3. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  4. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)
  5. Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)
  6. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  7. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
  8. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)
  9. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
  10. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  11. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
  12. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Citadel Securities, Chicago, IL (United States)
  13. Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)
  14. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  15. Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Univ. of Melbourne (Australia)
  16. University of KwaZulu-Natal Durban (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), KZN node, Durban (South Africa)
  17. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1475421
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1489957
Report Number(s):
[LA-UR-18-23879]
[Journal ID: ISSN 1475-7516]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-76SF00515; AC02-05CH11231; 89233218CNA000001]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 2018; Journal Issue: 09]; Journal ID: ISSN 1475-7516
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; cosmic background radiation; Cosmology: observations; Gravitational waves; inflation; Polarization; Astronomy and Astrophysics; CMB experiments, CMB polarization, gravitational waves and CMB polarization, physics of the early universe

Citation Formats

Kusaka, Akito, Appel, John, Essinger-Hileman, Thomas, Beall, James A., Campusano, Luis E., Cho, Hsiao-Mei, Choi, Steve K., Crowley, Kevin, Fowler, Joseph W., Gallardo, Patricio, Hasselfield, Matthew, Hilton, Gene, Ho, Shuay-Pwu P., Irwin, Kent, Jarosik, Norman, Niemack, Michael D., Nixon, Glen W., ~Nolta, Michael, Jr., Lyman A. Page, Palma, Gonzalo A., Parker, Lucas, Raghunathan, Srinivasan, Reintsema, Carl D., Sievers, Jonathan, Simon, Sara M., Staggs, Suzanne T., Visnjic, Katerina, and Yoon, Ki-Won. Results from the Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) experiment. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2018/09/005.
Kusaka, Akito, Appel, John, Essinger-Hileman, Thomas, Beall, James A., Campusano, Luis E., Cho, Hsiao-Mei, Choi, Steve K., Crowley, Kevin, Fowler, Joseph W., Gallardo, Patricio, Hasselfield, Matthew, Hilton, Gene, Ho, Shuay-Pwu P., Irwin, Kent, Jarosik, Norman, Niemack, Michael D., Nixon, Glen W., ~Nolta, Michael, Jr., Lyman A. Page, Palma, Gonzalo A., Parker, Lucas, Raghunathan, Srinivasan, Reintsema, Carl D., Sievers, Jonathan, Simon, Sara M., Staggs, Suzanne T., Visnjic, Katerina, & Yoon, Ki-Won. Results from the Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) experiment. United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2018/09/005.
Kusaka, Akito, Appel, John, Essinger-Hileman, Thomas, Beall, James A., Campusano, Luis E., Cho, Hsiao-Mei, Choi, Steve K., Crowley, Kevin, Fowler, Joseph W., Gallardo, Patricio, Hasselfield, Matthew, Hilton, Gene, Ho, Shuay-Pwu P., Irwin, Kent, Jarosik, Norman, Niemack, Michael D., Nixon, Glen W., ~Nolta, Michael, Jr., Lyman A. Page, Palma, Gonzalo A., Parker, Lucas, Raghunathan, Srinivasan, Reintsema, Carl D., Sievers, Jonathan, Simon, Sara M., Staggs, Suzanne T., Visnjic, Katerina, and Yoon, Ki-Won. Tue . "Results from the Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) experiment". United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2018/09/005. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1475421.
@article{osti_1475421,
title = {Results from the Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) experiment},
author = {Kusaka, Akito and Appel, John and Essinger-Hileman, Thomas and Beall, James A. and Campusano, Luis E. and Cho, Hsiao-Mei and Choi, Steve K. and Crowley, Kevin and Fowler, Joseph W. and Gallardo, Patricio and Hasselfield, Matthew and Hilton, Gene and Ho, Shuay-Pwu P. and Irwin, Kent and Jarosik, Norman and Niemack, Michael D. and Nixon, Glen W. and ~Nolta, Michael and Jr., Lyman A. Page and Palma, Gonzalo A. and Parker, Lucas and Raghunathan, Srinivasan and Reintsema, Carl D. and Sievers, Jonathan and Simon, Sara M. and Staggs, Suzanne T. and Visnjic, Katerina and Yoon, Ki-Won},
abstractNote = {We report the Atacama B-mode Search is an experiment designed to measure the cosmic microwave background polarization at large angular scales (0ℓ>4). It observes at 145 GHz from a site at 5,190 m elevation in northern Chile. The noise equivalent polarization temperature, or NEQ, is 41 μK√s. One of the unique features of ABS is its use of a rapidly rotating ambient-temperature half-wave plate (HWP) {as the first optical element}. {The HWP spins} at 2.55 Hz to modulate the incident polarized signal at frequencies above where instrument white noise dominates over atmospheric fluctuations and other sources of low-frequency noise. We report here on the analysis of data from a 2,400 deg2 region of sky. We perform a blind analysis to reduce potential bias. After unblinding, we find agreement with the Planck TE and EE measurements on the same region of sky, {with a derived calibration factor of 00.89 ± 0.1}. We marginally detect polarized dust emission {(at 3.2 σ for EE and 2.2 σ for BB)} and give an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r<2.3 (95% confidence level) with the equivalent of 100 on-sky days of observation. Finally, we also present a new measurement of the polarization of Tau A and introduce new methods for calibration and data analysis associated with HWP-based observations.},
doi = {10.1088/1475-7516/2018/09/005},
journal = {Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics},
number = [09],
volume = [2018],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 4 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Perturbations of a Cosmological Model and Angular Variations of the Microwave Background
journal, January 1967

  • Sachs, R. K.; Wolfe, A. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 147
  • DOI: 10.1086/148982

Republication of: Perturbations of a cosmological model and angular variations of the microwave background (By R.K. Sachs and A.M. Wolfe)
journal, October 2007


Polarization and Spectrum of the Primeval Radiation in an Anisotropic Universe
journal, July 1968


Polarization of the Microwave Background Due to Primordial Gravitational Waves
journal, November 1993

  • Crittenden, Robert; Davis, Richard L.; Steinhardt, Paul J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 417
  • DOI: 10.1086/187082

Polarization of the microwave background in inflationary cosmology
journal, December 1993


Large-scale polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation
journal, January 1995


Statistics of cosmic microwave background polarization
journal, June 1997

  • Kamionkowski, Marc; Kosowsky, Arthur; Stebbins, Albert
  • Physical Review D, Vol. 55, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.55.7368

All-sky analysis of polarization in the microwave background
journal, February 1997


A Probe of Primordial Gravity Waves and Vorticity
journal, March 1997


Signature of Gravity Waves in the Polarization of the Microwave Background
journal, March 1997


Gravitational lensing effect on cosmic microwave background polarization
journal, June 1998


Improved Constraints on Cosmology and Foregrounds from BICEP2 and Keck Array Cosmic Microwave Background Data with Inclusion of 95 GHz Band
journal, January 2016


Joint Analysis of BICEP2/ Keck Array and Planck Data
journal, March 2015


Detection of B -Mode Polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background with Data from the South Pole Telescope
journal, September 2013


MEASUREMENTS OF SUB-DEGREE B -MODE POLARIZATION IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND FROM 100 SQUARE DEGREES OF SPTPOL DATA
journal, July 2015


A MEASUREMENT OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND B -MODE POLARIZATION POWER SPECTRUM AT SUB-DEGREE SCALES WITH POLARBEAR
journal, October 2014

  • P. A. R. Ade, The Polarbear Collaboration:; Akiba, Y.; Anthony, A. E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 794, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/794/2/171

Evidence for Gravitational Lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization from Cross-Correlation with the Cosmic Infrared Background
journal, April 2014


Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Lensing Power Spectrum with the POLARBEAR Experiment
journal, July 2014


Detection of B -Mode Polarization at Degree Angular Scales by BICEP2
journal, June 2014


Planck 2015 results : XV. Gravitational lensing
journal, September 2016


The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Lensing of cmb Temperature and Polarization Derived from Cosmic Infrared Background Cross-Correlation
journal, July 2015

  • Engelen, Alexander van; Sherwin, Blake D.; Sehgal, Neelima
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 808, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/808/1/7

First detection of polarization of the submillimetre diffuse galactic dust emission by Archeops
journal, August 2004


Temperature and polarization angular power spectra of Galactic dust radiation at 353 GHz as measured by Archeops
journal, November 2005


SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE ( WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: GALACTIC FOREGROUND EMISSION
journal, January 2011

  • Gold, B.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J. L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 192, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/192/2/15

Planck 2015 results : X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps
journal, September 2016


A Limit on the Large Angular Scale Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background
journal, October 2001

  • Keating, Brian G.; O’Dell, Christopher W.; de Oliveira-Costa, Angelica
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 560, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/324222

New Limits on the Polarized Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background at Subdegree Angular Scales
journal, July 2002

  • Hedman, M. M.; Barkats, D.; Gundersen, J. O.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 573, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/342020

Three‐Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe ( WMAP ) Observations: Polarization Analysis
journal, June 2007

  • Page, L.; Hinshaw, G.; Komatsu, E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 170, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/513699

Measurement of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Power Spectra from two Years of Bicep data
journal, February 2010


Planck 2015 results : I. Overview of products and scientific results
journal, September 2016


Measurements of the Temperature and E-mode Polarization of the CMB from 500 Square Degrees of SPTpol Data
journal, January 2018

  • Henning, J. W.; Sayre, J. T.; Reichardt, C. L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 852, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa9ff4

Systematic effects from an ambient-temperature, continuously rotating half-wave plate
journal, September 2016

  • Essinger-Hileman, T.; Kusaka, A.; Appel, J. W.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4962023

MAXIPOL: Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry Using a Rotating Half‐Wave Plate
journal, August 2007

  • Johnson, B. R.; Collins, J.; Abroe, M. E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 665, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/518105

EBEX: a balloon-borne CMB polarization experiment
conference, July 2010

  • Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt; Aboobaker, Asad M.; Ade, Peter
  • SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.857138

Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout
journal, March 2016

  • Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.
  • Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 184, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10909-016-1575-z

Performance of a continuously rotating half-wave plate on the POLARBEAR telescope
journal, May 2017

  • Takakura, Satoru; Aguilar, Mario; Akiba, Yoshiki
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2017, Issue 05
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2017/05/008

A high capacity completely closed-cycle 250 mK 3He refrigeration system based on a pulse tube cooler
journal, September 2004


Experimental tests and modeling of the optimal orifice size for a closed cycle 4He sorption refrigerator
journal, November 2006


Unique reflector arrangement with very wide field of view for multibeam antennas
journal, January 1983


Feedhorn-Coupled TES Polarimeters for Next-Generation CMB Instruments
conference, January 2009

  • Yoon, K. W.; Appel, J. W.; Austermann, J. E.
  • THE THIRTEENTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LOW TEMPERATURE DETECTORS—LTD13, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3292392

Planar Orthomode Transducers for Feedhorn-coupled TES Polarimeters
conference, January 2009

  • McMahon, J.; Appel, J. W.; Austermann, J. E.
  • THE THIRTEENTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LOW TEMPERATURE DETECTORS—LTD13, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3292386

Optical properties of Feedhorn-coupled TES polarimeters for CMB polarimetry
conference, January 2009

  • Bleem, L. E.; Appel, J. W.; Austermann, J. E.
  • THE THIRTEENTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LOW TEMPERATURE DETECTORS—LTD13, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3292382

Characterizing and Modeling the Noise and Complex Impedance of Feedhorn-Coupled TES Polarimeters
conference, January 2009

  • Appel, J. W.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.
  • THE THIRTEENTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LOW TEMPERATURE DETECTORS—LTD13, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3292317

Planck 2015 results : VIII. High Frequency Instrument data processing: Calibration and maps
journal, September 2016


A Measurement of the Angular Power Spectrum of the CMB Temperature Anisotropy from the 2003 Flight of BOOMERANG
journal, August 2006

  • Jones, W. C.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 647, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/505559

Pre-flight integration and characterization of the SPIDER balloon-borne telescope
conference, July 2014

  • Rahlin, A. S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.
  • SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.2055683

Characterization of the Atacama B-mode Search
conference, July 2014

  • Simon, S. M.; Raghunathan, S.; Appel, J. W.
  • SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.2055576

Time-division SQUID multiplexers
conference, January 2002

  • Irwin, K. D.; Vale, L. R.; Bergren, N. E.
  • LOW TEMPERATURE DETECTORS: Ninth International Workshop on Low Temperature Detectors, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1457650

In Situ Time Constant and Optical Efficiency Measurements of TRUCE Pixels in the Atacama B-Mode Search
journal, December 2013

  • Simon, S. M.; Appel, J. W.; Cho, H. M.
  • Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 176, Issue 5-6
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10909-013-0999-y

Extrapolation of Galactic Dust Emission at 100 Microns to Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Frequencies Using FIRAS
journal, October 1999

  • Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Davis, Marc; Schlegel, David J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 524, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/307852

CMB polarization systematics due to beam asymmetry: Impact on inflationary science
journal, April 2008


Characterizing Atacama B-mode Search Detectors with a Half-Wave Plate
journal, December 2015

  • Simon, S. M.; Appel, J. W.; Campusano, L. E.
  • Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 184, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10909-015-1370-2

Functional Description of Read-out Electronics for Time-Domain Multiplexed Bolometers for Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Astronomy
journal, January 2008

  • Battistelli, E. S.; Amiri, M.; Burger, B.
  • Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 151, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10909-008-9772-z

Automated SQUID tuning procedure for kilo-pixel arrays of TES bolometers on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope
conference, August 2008

  • Battistelli, E. S.; Amiri, M.; Burger, B.
  • SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.789738

Transfer matrix for treating stratified media including birefringent crystals
journal, January 2013


Novel Calibration System with Sparse Wires for CMB Polarization Receivers
journal, January 2012

  • Tajima, O.; Nguyen, H.; Bischoff, C.
  • Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 167, Issue 5-6
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10909-012-0545-3

Planck intermediate results : LII. Planet flux densities
journal, November 2017


SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE ( WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: PLANETS AND CELESTIAL CALIBRATION SOURCES
journal, January 2011

  • Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 192, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/192/2/19

Measurement of the Crab nebula polarization at 90 GHz as a calibrator for CMB experiments
journal, May 2010


GLOBAL SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE CRAB NEBULA IN THE PROSPECT OF THE PLANCK SATELLITE POLARIZATION CALIBRATION
journal, February 2010


HEALPix: A Framework for High‐Resolution Discretization and Fast Analysis of Data Distributed on the Sphere
journal, April 2005

  • Gorski, K. M.; Hivon, E.; Banday, A. J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 622, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/427976

Self-Calibration of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Experiments
journal, December 2012


MASTER of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Power Spectrum: A Fast Method for Statistical Analysis of Large and Complex Cosmic Microwave Background Data Sets
journal, March 2002

  • Hivon, Eric; Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Netterfield, C. Barth
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 567, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/338126

Cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization pseudo- C estimators and covariances
journal, July 2005


Predictions for high-frequency radio surveys of extragalactic sources
journal, February 2005


Statistical properties of polarized radio sources at high frequency and their impact on cosmic microwave background polarization measurements: Properties of polarized radio sources
journal, January 2011


Power-spectrum analysis of three-dimensional redshift surveys
journal, May 1994

  • Feldman, Hume A.; Kaiser, Nick; Peacock, John A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 426
  • DOI: 10.1086/174036

General solution to the E B mixing problem
journal, August 2007


Polarized galactic synchrotron and dust emission and their correlation
journal, December 2015


UCSB South Pole 1994 Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Measurement Constraints on Open and Flat‐Λ Cold Dark Matter Cosmogonies
journal, July 1997

  • Ganga, Ken; Ratra, Bharat; Gundersen, Joshua O.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 484, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/304296

SECOND SEASON QUIET OBSERVATIONS: MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION POWER SPECTRUM AT 95 GHz
journal, November 2012