skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The climate effects of increasing ocean albedo: an idealized representation of solar geoengineering

Abstract

Geoengineering, or climate intervention, describes methods of deliberately altering the climate system to offset anthropogenic climate change. As an idealized representation of near-surface solar geoengineering over the ocean, such as marine cloud brightening, this paper discusses experiment G1ocean-albedo of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), involving an abrupt quadrupling of the CO2 concentration and an instantaneous increase in ocean albedo to maintain approximate net top-of-atmosphere radiative flux balance. A total of 11 Earth system models are relatively consistent in their temperature, radiative flux, and hydrological cycle responses to this experiment. Due to the imposed forcing, air over the land surface warms by a model average of 1.14K, while air over most of the ocean cools. Some parts of the near-surface air temperature over ocean warm due to heat transport from land to ocean. These changes generally resolve within a few years, indicating that changes in ocean heat content play at most a small role in the warming over the oceans. The hydrological cycle response is a general slowing down, with high heterogeneity in the response, particularly in the tropics. While idealized, these results have important implications for marine cloud brightening, or other methods of geoengineering involving spatially heterogeneous forcing, ormore » other general forcings with a strong land–ocean contrast. As a result, it also reinforces previous findings that keeping top-of-atmosphere net radiative flux constant is not sufficient for preventing changes in global mean temperature.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [8];  [9];  [7]; ORCiD logo [10];  [11];  [12];  [11];  [13]; ORCiD logo [14]; ORCiD logo [15]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)
  3. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)
  4. CNRS / Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France)
  5. Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto (Canada)
  6. Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Univ. of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom)
  7. Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China)
  8. Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom)
  9. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Tasmania (Australia)
  10. Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)
  11. Max Planck Institute of Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)
  12. Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Univ. of Tasmania, Tasmania (Australia)
  13. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama (Japan)
  14. Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)
  15. Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (South Korea)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1475205
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-133629
Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online); Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 17; Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Kravitz, Ben, Rasch, Philip J., Wang, Hailong, Robock, Alan, Gabriel, Corey, Boucher, Olivier, Cole, Jason N. S., Haywood, Jim, Ji, Duoying, Jones, Andy, Lenton, Andrew, Moore, John C., Muri, Helene, Niemeier, Ulrike, Phipps, Steven, Schmidt, Hauke, Watanabe, Shingo, Yang, Shuting, and Yoon, Jin -Ho. The climate effects of increasing ocean albedo: an idealized representation of solar geoengineering. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.5194/ACP-18-13097-2018.
Kravitz, Ben, Rasch, Philip J., Wang, Hailong, Robock, Alan, Gabriel, Corey, Boucher, Olivier, Cole, Jason N. S., Haywood, Jim, Ji, Duoying, Jones, Andy, Lenton, Andrew, Moore, John C., Muri, Helene, Niemeier, Ulrike, Phipps, Steven, Schmidt, Hauke, Watanabe, Shingo, Yang, Shuting, & Yoon, Jin -Ho. The climate effects of increasing ocean albedo: an idealized representation of solar geoengineering. United States. doi:10.5194/ACP-18-13097-2018.
Kravitz, Ben, Rasch, Philip J., Wang, Hailong, Robock, Alan, Gabriel, Corey, Boucher, Olivier, Cole, Jason N. S., Haywood, Jim, Ji, Duoying, Jones, Andy, Lenton, Andrew, Moore, John C., Muri, Helene, Niemeier, Ulrike, Phipps, Steven, Schmidt, Hauke, Watanabe, Shingo, Yang, Shuting, and Yoon, Jin -Ho. Wed . "The climate effects of increasing ocean albedo: an idealized representation of solar geoengineering". United States. doi:10.5194/ACP-18-13097-2018. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1475205.
@article{osti_1475205,
title = {The climate effects of increasing ocean albedo: an idealized representation of solar geoengineering},
author = {Kravitz, Ben and Rasch, Philip J. and Wang, Hailong and Robock, Alan and Gabriel, Corey and Boucher, Olivier and Cole, Jason N. S. and Haywood, Jim and Ji, Duoying and Jones, Andy and Lenton, Andrew and Moore, John C. and Muri, Helene and Niemeier, Ulrike and Phipps, Steven and Schmidt, Hauke and Watanabe, Shingo and Yang, Shuting and Yoon, Jin -Ho},
abstractNote = {Geoengineering, or climate intervention, describes methods of deliberately altering the climate system to offset anthropogenic climate change. As an idealized representation of near-surface solar geoengineering over the ocean, such as marine cloud brightening, this paper discusses experiment G1ocean-albedo of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), involving an abrupt quadrupling of the CO2 concentration and an instantaneous increase in ocean albedo to maintain approximate net top-of-atmosphere radiative flux balance. A total of 11 Earth system models are relatively consistent in their temperature, radiative flux, and hydrological cycle responses to this experiment. Due to the imposed forcing, air over the land surface warms by a model average of 1.14K, while air over most of the ocean cools. Some parts of the near-surface air temperature over ocean warm due to heat transport from land to ocean. These changes generally resolve within a few years, indicating that changes in ocean heat content play at most a small role in the warming over the oceans. The hydrological cycle response is a general slowing down, with high heterogeneity in the response, particularly in the tropics. While idealized, these results have important implications for marine cloud brightening, or other methods of geoengineering involving spatially heterogeneous forcing, or other general forcings with a strong land–ocean contrast. As a result, it also reinforces previous findings that keeping top-of-atmosphere net radiative flux constant is not sufficient for preventing changes in global mean temperature.},
doi = {10.5194/ACP-18-13097-2018},
journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)},
number = 17,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The transient response of global-mean precipitation to increasing carbon dioxide levels
journal, April 2010


Dynamics of the coupled human–climate system resulting from closed-loop control of solar geoengineering
journal, June 2013


Climate response to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and solar irradiance on the time scale of days to weeks
journal, August 2012


Solar irradiance reduction via climate engineering: Impact of different techniques on the energy balance and the hydrological cycle: CLIMATIC IMPACT OF DIFFERENT SRM METHODS
journal, November 2013

  • Niemeier, U.; Schmidt, H.; Alterskjaer, K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013jd020445

The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research
journal, September 2013

  • Hurrell, James W.; Holland, M. M.; Gent, P. R.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 94, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00121.1

An energetic perspective on hydrological cycle changes in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project: GeoMIP ENERGETIC PERSPECTIVE
journal, December 2013

  • Kravitz, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Forster, Piers M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013jd020502

Development and evaluation of an Earth-System model – HadGEM2
journal, January 2011

  • Collins, W. J.; Bellouin, N.; Doutriaux-Boucher, M.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-4-1051-2011

Sea spray geoengineering experiments in the geoengineering model intercomparison project (GeoMIP): Experimental design and preliminary results: GEOMIP MARINE CLOUD BRIGHTENING
journal, October 2013

  • Kravitz, Ben; Forster, Piers M.; Jones, Andy
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50856

Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5
journal, February 2013


Response to marine cloud brightening in a multi-model ensemble
journal, January 2018

  • Stjern, Camilla W.; Muri, Helene; Ahlm, Lars
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-621-2018

A multimodel examination of climate extremes in an idealized geoengineering experiment
journal, April 2014

  • Curry, Charles L.; Sillmann, Jana; Bronaugh, David
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 119, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013jd020648

The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the GeoMIP
journal, October 2015

  • Glienke, Susanne; Irvine, Peter J.; Lawrence, Mark G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 120, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015jd024202

Bubble, bubble, toil and trouble: An editorial comment
journal, February 2011


A new method for diagnosing radiative forcing and climate sensitivity
journal, January 2004


Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive: GISS MODEL-E2 CMIP5 SIMULATIONS
journal, March 2014

  • Schmidt, Gavin A.; Kelley, Max; Nazarenko, Larissa
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013MS000265

A New Method of Comparing Forcing Agents in Climate Models
journal, October 2015


Modeling of solar radiation management: a comparison of simulations using reduced solar constant and stratospheric sulphate aerosols
journal, July 2014

  • Kalidindi, Sirisha; Bala, Govindasamy; Modak, Angshuman
  • Climate Dynamics, Vol. 44, Issue 9-10
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00382-014-2240-3

An Overview of CMIP5 and the Experiment Design
journal, April 2012

  • Taylor, Karl E.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Meehl, Gerald A.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 93, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00094.1

Efficacy of climate forcings
journal, January 2005


EC-Earth V2.2: description and validation of a new seamless earth system prediction model
journal, December 2011


Solar irradiance reduction to counteract radiative forcing from a quadrupling of CO 2 : climate responses simulated by four earth system models
journal, January 2012

  • Schmidt, H.; Alterskjær, K.; Bou Karam, D.
  • Earth System Dynamics, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/esd-3-63-2012

Control of global warming?
journal, September 1990


Adjustments in the Forcing-Feedback Framework for Understanding Climate Change
journal, February 2015

  • Sherwood, Steven C.; Bony, Sandrine; Boucher, Olivier
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 96, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00167.1

Sea-salt injections into the low-latitude marine boundary layer: The transient response in three Earth system models: SEA-SALT CLIMATE ENGINEERING IN THREE ESMS
journal, November 2013

  • Alterskjaer, Kari; Kristjánsson, Jón Egill; Boucher, Olivier
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013jd020432

Geoengineering as a design problem
journal, January 2015

  • Kravitz, B.; MacMartin, D. G.; Wang, H.
  • Earth System Dynamics Discussions, Vol. 6, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/esdd-6-1635-2015

Carbon emission limits required to satisfy future representative concentration pathways of greenhouse gases: ALLOWABLE FUTURE CARBON EMISSIONS
journal, March 2011

  • Arora, V. K.; Scinocca, J. F.; Boer, G. J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010GL046270

The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)
journal, January 2011

  • Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Boucher, Olivier
  • Atmospheric Science Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/asl.316

Short ensembles: an efficient method for discerning climate-relevant sensitivities in atmospheric general circulation models
journal, January 2014


The hydrological impact of geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP): THE HYDROLOGIC IMPACT OF GEOENGINEERING
journal, October 2013

  • Tilmes, Simone; Fasullo, John; Lamarque, Jean-Francois
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50868

Climate model response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP): GEOMIP MODEL RESPONSE
journal, August 2013

  • Kravitz, Ben; Caldeira, Ken; Boucher, Olivier
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50646

The Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM1-M – Part 1: Description and basic evaluation of the physical climate
journal, January 2013

  • Bentsen, M.; Bethke, I.; Debernard, J. B.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 6, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-6-687-2013

The G4Foam Experiment: global climate impacts of regional ocean albedo modification
journal, January 2017

  • Gabriel, Corey J.; Robock, Alan; Xia, Lili
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-17-595-2017

A comparison of temperature and precipitation responses to different Earth radiation management geoengineering schemes
journal, September 2015

  • Crook, J. A.; Jackson, L. S.; Osprey, S. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 120, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015jd023269

The CSIRO Mk3L climate system model version 1.0 – Part 1: Description and evaluation
journal, January 2011

  • Phipps, S. J.; Rotstayn, L. D.; Gordon, H. B.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 4, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-4-483-2011

Time-Varying Climate Sensitivity from Regional Feedbacks
journal, July 2013


Fast versus slow response in climate change: implications for the global hydrological cycle
journal, May 2009


Geoengineering as a design problem
journal, January 2016

  • Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Wang, Hailong
  • Earth System Dynamics, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/esd-7-469-2016

Marine cloud brightening – as effective without clouds
journal, January 2017

  • Ahlm, Lars; Jones, Andy; Stjern, Camilla W.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-17-13071-2017

Description and basic evaluation of Beijing Normal University Earth System Model (BNU-ESM) version 1
journal, January 2014


Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming
journal, October 2009


MIROC-ESM 2010: model description and basic results of CMIP5-20c3m experiments
journal, January 2011

  • Watanabe, S.; Hajima, T.; Sudo, K.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-4-845-2011

Arctic sea ice and atmospheric circulation under the GeoMIP G1 scenario
journal, January 2014

  • Moore, John C.; Rinke, Annette; Yu, Xiaoyong
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 119, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013jd021060

Land-sea warming contrast: the role of the horizontal energy transport
journal, March 2015

  • Geoffroy, Olivier; Saint-Martin, David; Voldoire, Aurore
  • Climate Dynamics, Vol. 45, Issue 11-12
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00382-015-2552-y

Climate and carbon cycle changes from 1850 to 2100 in MPI-ESM simulations for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5: Climate Changes in MPI-ESM
journal, July 2013

  • Giorgetta, Marco A.; Jungclaus, Johann; Reick, Christian H.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 5, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/jame.20038

An Energy Conservation Analysis of Ocean Drift in the CMIP5 Global Coupled Models
journal, March 2016

  • Hobbs, Will; Palmer, Matthew D.; Monselesan, Didier
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 29, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0477.1

Sea-salt injections into the low-latitude marine boundary layer: The transient response in three Earth system models: SEA-SALT CLIMATE ENGINEERING IN THREE ESMS
journal, November 2013

  • Alterskjaer, Kari; Kristjánsson, Jón Egill; Boucher, Olivier
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020432

A comparison of temperature and precipitation responses to different Earth radiation management geoengineering schemes
journal, September 2015

  • Crook, J. A.; Jackson, L. S.; Osprey, S. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 120, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JD023269

A multimodel examination of climate extremes in an idealized geoengineering experiment
journal, April 2014

  • Curry, Charles L.; Sillmann, Jana; Bronaugh, David
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 119, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020648

The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the GeoMIP
journal, October 2015

  • Glienke, Susanne; Irvine, Peter J.; Lawrence, Mark G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 120, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JD024202

An energetic perspective on hydrological cycle changes in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project: GeoMIP ENERGETIC PERSPECTIVE
journal, December 2013

  • Kravitz, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Forster, Piers M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020502

Arctic sea ice and atmospheric circulation under the GeoMIP G1 scenario
journal, January 2014

  • Moore, John C.; Rinke, Annette; Yu, Xiaoyong
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 119, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021060

Solar irradiance reduction via climate engineering: Impact of different techniques on the energy balance and the hydrological cycle: CLIMATIC IMPACT OF DIFFERENT SRM METHODS
journal, November 2013

  • Niemeier, U.; Schmidt, H.; Alterskjaer, K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020445

    Works referencing / citing this record: