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Title: Elucidating potential-induced degradation in bifacial PERC silicon photovoltaic modules

This paper elucidates the behavior and underlying mechanism of potential-induced degradation (PID) on the rear side of p-type monocrystalline silicon bifacial passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) photovoltaic modules. At 50 degrees C, 30% relative humidity, and -1000 V bias to the solar cells with aluminium foil on the rear glass surface, the rear-side performance of bifacial PERC modules at standard testing conditions degraded dramatically after 40 hours with a 40.4%, 36.2%, and 7.2% loss in maximum power (Pmpp), short-circuit current (Isc), and open-circuit voltage (Voc), respectively. The front-side standard testing condition performance, on the other hand, showed less degradation; Pmpp, Isc, and Voc dropped by 12.0%, 5.2%, and 5.3%, respectively. However, negligible degradation was observed when the solar cells were positively biased. Based on I-V characteristics, electroluminescence, external quantum efficiency measurements, and the effective minority-carrier lifetime simulation, the efficiency loss is shown to be caused by the surface polarization effect; positive charges are attracted to the passivation/antireflection stack on the rear surface and reduce its field effect passivation performance. Extended PID testing to 100 hours showed an increase in device performances (relative to 40 hours) due to the formation of an inversion layer along the rear surface. In addition,more » replacing ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer with polyolefin elastomer films significantly slows down the progression of PID, whereas a glass/transparent backsheet design effectively protects the rear side of bifacial PERC modules from PID. Furthermore, PID on the rear side of bifacial PERC modules is fully recoverable, and light greatly promotes recovery of the observed PID.« less
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-72449
Journal ID: ISSN 1062-7995
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Progress in Photovoltaics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 26; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1062-7995
Publisher:
Wiley
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; photovoltaic module reliability; potential-induced degradation; surface passivation degradation; bifacial PERC silicon solar cell; light-induced recovery
OSTI Identifier:
1475127
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1440372

Luo, Wei, Hacke, Peter, Terwilliger, Kent, Liang, Tian Shen, Wang, Yan, Ramakrishna, Seeram, Aberle, Armin G., and Khoo, Yong Sheng. Elucidating potential-induced degradation in bifacial PERC silicon photovoltaic modules. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1002/pip.3028.
Luo, Wei, Hacke, Peter, Terwilliger, Kent, Liang, Tian Shen, Wang, Yan, Ramakrishna, Seeram, Aberle, Armin G., & Khoo, Yong Sheng. Elucidating potential-induced degradation in bifacial PERC silicon photovoltaic modules. United States. doi:10.1002/pip.3028.
Luo, Wei, Hacke, Peter, Terwilliger, Kent, Liang, Tian Shen, Wang, Yan, Ramakrishna, Seeram, Aberle, Armin G., and Khoo, Yong Sheng. 2018. "Elucidating potential-induced degradation in bifacial PERC silicon photovoltaic modules". United States. doi:10.1002/pip.3028.
@article{osti_1475127,
title = {Elucidating potential-induced degradation in bifacial PERC silicon photovoltaic modules},
author = {Luo, Wei and Hacke, Peter and Terwilliger, Kent and Liang, Tian Shen and Wang, Yan and Ramakrishna, Seeram and Aberle, Armin G. and Khoo, Yong Sheng},
abstractNote = {This paper elucidates the behavior and underlying mechanism of potential-induced degradation (PID) on the rear side of p-type monocrystalline silicon bifacial passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) photovoltaic modules. At 50 degrees C, 30% relative humidity, and -1000 V bias to the solar cells with aluminium foil on the rear glass surface, the rear-side performance of bifacial PERC modules at standard testing conditions degraded dramatically after 40 hours with a 40.4%, 36.2%, and 7.2% loss in maximum power (Pmpp), short-circuit current (Isc), and open-circuit voltage (Voc), respectively. The front-side standard testing condition performance, on the other hand, showed less degradation; Pmpp, Isc, and Voc dropped by 12.0%, 5.2%, and 5.3%, respectively. However, negligible degradation was observed when the solar cells were positively biased. Based on I-V characteristics, electroluminescence, external quantum efficiency measurements, and the effective minority-carrier lifetime simulation, the efficiency loss is shown to be caused by the surface polarization effect; positive charges are attracted to the passivation/antireflection stack on the rear surface and reduce its field effect passivation performance. Extended PID testing to 100 hours showed an increase in device performances (relative to 40 hours) due to the formation of an inversion layer along the rear surface. In addition, replacing ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer with polyolefin elastomer films significantly slows down the progression of PID, whereas a glass/transparent backsheet design effectively protects the rear side of bifacial PERC modules from PID. Furthermore, PID on the rear side of bifacial PERC modules is fully recoverable, and light greatly promotes recovery of the observed PID.},
doi = {10.1002/pip.3028},
journal = {Progress in Photovoltaics},
number = 10,
volume = 26,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Modeling of rates of moisture ingress into photovoltaic modules
journal, October 2006