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Title: Evidence for prevalent Z = 6 magic number in neutron-rich carbon isotopes

Abstract

Here, the nuclear shell structure, which originates in the nearly independent motion of nucleons in an average potential, provides an important guide for our understanding of nuclear structure and the underlying nuclear forces. Its most remarkable fingerprint is the existence of the so-called magic numbers of protons and neutrons associated with extra stability. Although the introduction of a phenomenological spin–orbit (SO) coupling force in 1949 helped in explaining the magic numbers, its origins are still open questions. Here, we present experimental evidence for the smallest SO-originated magic number (subshell closure) at the proton number six in C obtained from systematic analysis of point-proton distribution radii, electromagnetic transition rates and atomic masses of light nuclei. Performing ab initio calculations on C, we show that the observed proton distribution radii and subshell closure can be explained by the state-of-the-art nuclear theory with chiral nucleon–nucleon and three-nucleon forces, which are rooted in the quantum chromodynamics.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [2];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [1];  [2];  [2] more »; ORCiD logo [12];  [13];  [5];  [14];  [15];  [2];  [2];  [16];  [17];  [18];  [19];  [20];  [21];  [15];  [2];  [9];  [2];  [22];  [23];  [2] « less
  1. Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Vietnam)
  2. Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  4. Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan); National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)
  5. Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)
  6. Beihang Univ., Beijing (China)
  7. Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Beihang Univ., Beijing (China)
  8. Pham Ngoc Thach Univ. of Medicine, Ho Chi Ming (Vietnam); VNUHCM-Univ. of Science, Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam); Sungkyunkwan Univ., Gyeonggi-do (South Korea)
  9. GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Justus Leibig Univ., Giessen (Germany)
  10. GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Univ. of Groningen, Groningen (The Netherlands)
  11. Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea)
  12. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  13. Saint Mary's Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada)
  14. Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Vietnam)
  15. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China)
  16. Kochi Univ. of Technology, Kochi (Japan)
  17. RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan)
  18. Dong Nai Univ., Dong Nai (Vietnam)
  19. Tokyo Univ. of Science, Chiba (Japan)
  20. Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
  21. Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
  22. Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan)
  23. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1474691
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC05-00OR22725]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1]; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Tran, D. T., Ong, H. J., Hagen, Gaute, Morris, Titus D., Aoi, N., Suzuki, T., Kanada-En’yo, Y., Geng, L. S., Terashima, S., Tanihata, I., Nguyen, T. T., Ayyad, Y., Chan, P. Y., Fukuda, M., Geissel, H., Harakeh, M. N., Hashimoto, T., Hoang, T. H., Ideguchi, E., Inoue, A., Jansen, Gustav R., Kanungo, R., Kawabata, T., Khiem, L. H., Lin, W. P., Matsuta, K., Mihara, M., Momota, S., Nagae, D., Nguyen, N. D., Nishimura, D., Otsuka, T., Ozawa, A., Ren, P. P., Sakaguchi, H., Scheidenberger, C., Tanaka, J., Takechi, M., Wada, R., and Yamamoto, T. Evidence for prevalent Z = 6 magic number in neutron-rich carbon isotopes. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04024-y.
Tran, D. T., Ong, H. J., Hagen, Gaute, Morris, Titus D., Aoi, N., Suzuki, T., Kanada-En’yo, Y., Geng, L. S., Terashima, S., Tanihata, I., Nguyen, T. T., Ayyad, Y., Chan, P. Y., Fukuda, M., Geissel, H., Harakeh, M. N., Hashimoto, T., Hoang, T. H., Ideguchi, E., Inoue, A., Jansen, Gustav R., Kanungo, R., Kawabata, T., Khiem, L. H., Lin, W. P., Matsuta, K., Mihara, M., Momota, S., Nagae, D., Nguyen, N. D., Nishimura, D., Otsuka, T., Ozawa, A., Ren, P. P., Sakaguchi, H., Scheidenberger, C., Tanaka, J., Takechi, M., Wada, R., & Yamamoto, T. Evidence for prevalent Z = 6 magic number in neutron-rich carbon isotopes. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04024-y.
Tran, D. T., Ong, H. J., Hagen, Gaute, Morris, Titus D., Aoi, N., Suzuki, T., Kanada-En’yo, Y., Geng, L. S., Terashima, S., Tanihata, I., Nguyen, T. T., Ayyad, Y., Chan, P. Y., Fukuda, M., Geissel, H., Harakeh, M. N., Hashimoto, T., Hoang, T. H., Ideguchi, E., Inoue, A., Jansen, Gustav R., Kanungo, R., Kawabata, T., Khiem, L. H., Lin, W. P., Matsuta, K., Mihara, M., Momota, S., Nagae, D., Nguyen, N. D., Nishimura, D., Otsuka, T., Ozawa, A., Ren, P. P., Sakaguchi, H., Scheidenberger, C., Tanaka, J., Takechi, M., Wada, R., and Yamamoto, T. Mon . "Evidence for prevalent Z = 6 magic number in neutron-rich carbon isotopes". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04024-y. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1474691.
@article{osti_1474691,
title = {Evidence for prevalent Z = 6 magic number in neutron-rich carbon isotopes},
author = {Tran, D. T. and Ong, H. J. and Hagen, Gaute and Morris, Titus D. and Aoi, N. and Suzuki, T. and Kanada-En’yo, Y. and Geng, L. S. and Terashima, S. and Tanihata, I. and Nguyen, T. T. and Ayyad, Y. and Chan, P. Y. and Fukuda, M. and Geissel, H. and Harakeh, M. N. and Hashimoto, T. and Hoang, T. H. and Ideguchi, E. and Inoue, A. and Jansen, Gustav R. and Kanungo, R. and Kawabata, T. and Khiem, L. H. and Lin, W. P. and Matsuta, K. and Mihara, M. and Momota, S. and Nagae, D. and Nguyen, N. D. and Nishimura, D. and Otsuka, T. and Ozawa, A. and Ren, P. P. and Sakaguchi, H. and Scheidenberger, C. and Tanaka, J. and Takechi, M. and Wada, R. and Yamamoto, T.},
abstractNote = {Here, the nuclear shell structure, which originates in the nearly independent motion of nucleons in an average potential, provides an important guide for our understanding of nuclear structure and the underlying nuclear forces. Its most remarkable fingerprint is the existence of the so-called magic numbers of protons and neutrons associated with extra stability. Although the introduction of a phenomenological spin–orbit (SO) coupling force in 1949 helped in explaining the magic numbers, its origins are still open questions. Here, we present experimental evidence for the smallest SO-originated magic number (subshell closure) at the proton number six in C obtained from systematic analysis of point-proton distribution radii, electromagnetic transition rates and atomic masses of light nuclei. Performing ab initio calculations on C, we show that the observed proton distribution radii and subshell closure can be explained by the state-of-the-art nuclear theory with chiral nucleon–nucleon and three-nucleon forces, which are rooted in the quantum chromodynamics.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-04024-y},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = [1],
volume = [9],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Nuclear shell structure. The left diagram is the shell structure for a harmonic-oscillator potential plus a small orbital angular momentum (l2) term. The right diagram shows the splitting of the single-particle orbitals by an additional spin–orbit coupling force

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes
    journal, February 2016

    • Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Bissell, M. L.; Blaum, K.
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3645

    Tables of E2 transition probabilities from the first 2 + states in even–even nuclei
    journal, January 2016


    Systematics of 2 + states in C isotopes from the no-core shell model
    journal, March 2013


    Measurement of the magnetic moment of the first excited state of 15C
    journal, October 1975


    Effective interactions for the 1p shell
    journal, November 1965


    Neutron and weak-charge distributions of the 48Ca nucleus
    journal, November 2015

    • Hagen, G.; Ekström, A.; Forssén, C.
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3529

    Spectroscopic factors for the 1p shell
    journal, September 1967


    Exotic nuclei explored at in-flight separators
    journal, November 2017


    The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (II). Tables, graphs and references
    journal, March 2017


    Table of experimental nuclear ground state charge radii: An update
    journal, January 2013


    Dimers based on the α + α potential and chain states of carbon isotopes
    journal, December 1997

    • von Oertzen, W.
    • Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei, Vol. 357, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1007/s002180050255

    Magic numbers in exotic light nuclei near drip lines
    journal, February 2006

    • Gupta, Raj K.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Kumar, Sushil
    • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 32, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/32/4/012

    Evidence for prevalent Z = 6 magic number in neutron-rich carbon isotopes
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    • Barrett, Bruce R.; Navrátil, Petr; Vary, James P.
    • Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, Vol. 69
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.ppnp.2012.10.003

    New data acquisition system for the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory
    journal, April 2010

    • Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 616, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2010.02.120

    Coupled-cluster computations of atomic nuclei
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    Microscopic shell-model description of the exotic nucleus 16C
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    Masses of exotic calcium isotopes pin down nuclear forces
    journal, June 2013


    Correlations of nuclear charge radii with other nuclear observables
    journal, March 2015


    Energy levels of light nuclei A = 16–17
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    Symmetry properties of nuclear levels
    journal, January 1941


    Improving upon CCSD(T): ΛCCSD(T). I. Potential energy surfaces
    journal, January 2008

    • Taube, Andrew G.; Bartlett, Rodney J.
    • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 128, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2830236

    The decrease of ground-state correlations from 12C to 14C
    journal, November 1975


      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.