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Title: A Solvent-Free Synthesis of Lignin-Derived Renewable Carbon with Tunable Porosity for Supercapacitor Electrodes

Abstract

Synthesis of multiphase materials from lignin, a biorefinery coproduct, offers limited success owing to the inherent difficulty in controlling dispersion of these renewable hyperbranched macromolecules in the product or its intermediates. Effective use of the chemically reactive functionalities in lignin, however, enables tuning morphologies of the materials. Here in this study, we bind lignin oligomers with a rubbery macromolecule followed by thermal crosslinking to form a carbon precursor with phase contrasted morphology at submicron scale. The solvent-free mixing is conducted in a high-shear melt mixer. With this, the carbon precursor is further modified with potassium hydroxide for a single-step carbonization to yield activated carbon with tunable pore structure. A typical precursor with 90 % lignin yields porous carbon with 2120 m 2 g -1 surface area and supercapacitor with 215 F g -1 capacitance. Lastly, the results show a simple route towards manufacturing carbon-based energy-storage materials, eliminating the need for conventional template synthesis.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). The Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon and Composite Group, Materials Science and Technology Division
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon and Composite Group, Materials Science and Technology Division
  3. Glucan Biorenewables LLC, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Advanced Manufacturing Office (EE-5A)
OSTI Identifier:
1474617
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1462134
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ChemSusChem
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 17; Journal ID: ISSN 1864-5631
Publisher:
ChemPubSoc Europe
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; carbon; lignin crosslinking; morphology tuning; renewable resources; supercapacitor

Citation Formats

Ho, Hoi Chun, Nguyen, Ngoc A., Meek, Kelly M., Alonso, David Martin, Hakim, Sikander H., and Naskar, Amit K. A Solvent-Free Synthesis of Lignin-Derived Renewable Carbon with Tunable Porosity for Supercapacitor Electrodes. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/cssc.201800929.
Ho, Hoi Chun, Nguyen, Ngoc A., Meek, Kelly M., Alonso, David Martin, Hakim, Sikander H., & Naskar, Amit K. A Solvent-Free Synthesis of Lignin-Derived Renewable Carbon with Tunable Porosity for Supercapacitor Electrodes. United States. doi:10.1002/cssc.201800929.
Ho, Hoi Chun, Nguyen, Ngoc A., Meek, Kelly M., Alonso, David Martin, Hakim, Sikander H., and Naskar, Amit K. Mon . "A Solvent-Free Synthesis of Lignin-Derived Renewable Carbon with Tunable Porosity for Supercapacitor Electrodes". United States. doi:10.1002/cssc.201800929. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1474617.
@article{osti_1474617,
title = {A Solvent-Free Synthesis of Lignin-Derived Renewable Carbon with Tunable Porosity for Supercapacitor Electrodes},
author = {Ho, Hoi Chun and Nguyen, Ngoc A. and Meek, Kelly M. and Alonso, David Martin and Hakim, Sikander H. and Naskar, Amit K.},
abstractNote = {Synthesis of multiphase materials from lignin, a biorefinery coproduct, offers limited success owing to the inherent difficulty in controlling dispersion of these renewable hyperbranched macromolecules in the product or its intermediates. Effective use of the chemically reactive functionalities in lignin, however, enables tuning morphologies of the materials. Here in this study, we bind lignin oligomers with a rubbery macromolecule followed by thermal crosslinking to form a carbon precursor with phase contrasted morphology at submicron scale. The solvent-free mixing is conducted in a high-shear melt mixer. With this, the carbon precursor is further modified with potassium hydroxide for a single-step carbonization to yield activated carbon with tunable pore structure. A typical precursor with 90 % lignin yields porous carbon with 2120 m2 g-1 surface area and supercapacitor with 215 F g-1 capacitance. Lastly, the results show a simple route towards manufacturing carbon-based energy-storage materials, eliminating the need for conventional template synthesis.},
doi = {10.1002/cssc.201800929},
journal = {ChemSusChem},
number = 17,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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