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Title: Direct atomic fabrication and dopant positioning in Si using electron beams with active real-time image-based feedback

We report that semiconductor fabrication is a mainstay of modern civilization, enabling the myriad applications and technologies that underpin everyday life. However, while sub-10 nanometer devices are already entering the mainstream, the end of the Moore's law roadmap still lacks tools capable of bulk semiconductor fabrication on sub-nanometer and atomic levels, with probe-based manipulation being explored as the only known pathway. Here we demonstrate that the atomic-sized focused beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope can be used to manipulate semiconductors such as Si on the atomic level, inducing growth of crystalline Si from the amorphous phase, reentrant amorphization, milling, and dopant front motion. These phenomena are visualized in real-time with atomic resolution. We further implement active feedback control based on real-time image analytics to automatically control the e-beam motion, enabling shape control and providing a pathway for atom-by-atom correction of fabricated structures in the near future. Lastly, these observations open a new epoch for atom-by-atom manufacturing in bulk, the long-held dream of nanotechnology.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [3] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [5] ; ORCiD logo [6] ; ORCiD logo [6] ; ORCiD logo [3] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). The Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials and The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). The Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials and Materials Sciences and Technology Division
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Sciences and Technology Division
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). The Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research
  5. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS) and Computational Sciences and Engineering Division
  6. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nanotechnology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 25; Journal ID: ISSN 0957-4484
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; electron beam; atomic fabrication; Si
OSTI Identifier:
1474611
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1485002

Jesse, Stephen, Hudak, Bethany M., Zarkadoula, Eva, Song, Jiaming, Maksov, Artem B., Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A., Ganesh, Panchapakesan, Kravchenko, Ivan I., Snijders, Panchapakesan C., Lupini, Andrew R., Borisevich, Albina Y., and Kalinin, Sergei V.. Direct atomic fabrication and dopant positioning in Si using electron beams with active real-time image-based feedback. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1088/1361-6528/aabb79.
Jesse, Stephen, Hudak, Bethany M., Zarkadoula, Eva, Song, Jiaming, Maksov, Artem B., Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A., Ganesh, Panchapakesan, Kravchenko, Ivan I., Snijders, Panchapakesan C., Lupini, Andrew R., Borisevich, Albina Y., & Kalinin, Sergei V.. Direct atomic fabrication and dopant positioning in Si using electron beams with active real-time image-based feedback. United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6528/aabb79.
Jesse, Stephen, Hudak, Bethany M., Zarkadoula, Eva, Song, Jiaming, Maksov, Artem B., Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A., Ganesh, Panchapakesan, Kravchenko, Ivan I., Snijders, Panchapakesan C., Lupini, Andrew R., Borisevich, Albina Y., and Kalinin, Sergei V.. 2018. "Direct atomic fabrication and dopant positioning in Si using electron beams with active real-time image-based feedback". United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6528/aabb79. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1474611.
@article{osti_1474611,
title = {Direct atomic fabrication and dopant positioning in Si using electron beams with active real-time image-based feedback},
author = {Jesse, Stephen and Hudak, Bethany M. and Zarkadoula, Eva and Song, Jiaming and Maksov, Artem B. and Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A. and Ganesh, Panchapakesan and Kravchenko, Ivan I. and Snijders, Panchapakesan C. and Lupini, Andrew R. and Borisevich, Albina Y. and Kalinin, Sergei V.},
abstractNote = {We report that semiconductor fabrication is a mainstay of modern civilization, enabling the myriad applications and technologies that underpin everyday life. However, while sub-10 nanometer devices are already entering the mainstream, the end of the Moore's law roadmap still lacks tools capable of bulk semiconductor fabrication on sub-nanometer and atomic levels, with probe-based manipulation being explored as the only known pathway. Here we demonstrate that the atomic-sized focused beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope can be used to manipulate semiconductors such as Si on the atomic level, inducing growth of crystalline Si from the amorphous phase, reentrant amorphization, milling, and dopant front motion. These phenomena are visualized in real-time with atomic resolution. We further implement active feedback control based on real-time image analytics to automatically control the e-beam motion, enabling shape control and providing a pathway for atom-by-atom correction of fabricated structures in the near future. Lastly, these observations open a new epoch for atom-by-atom manufacturing in bulk, the long-held dream of nanotechnology.},
doi = {10.1088/1361-6528/aabb79},
journal = {Nanotechnology},
number = 25,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}