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Title: Historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS)

Abstract

Abstract. We present a new data set of annual historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic chemically reactive gases (CO, CH4, NH3, NOx, SO2, NMVOCs), carbonaceous aerosols (black carbon – BC, and organic carbon – OC), and CO2 developed with the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS). We improve upon existing inventories with a more consistent and reproducible methodology applied to all emission species, updated emission factors, and recent estimates through 2014. The data system relies on existing energy consumption data sets and regional and country-specific inventories to produce trends over recent decades. All emission species are consistently estimated using the same activity data over all time periods. Emissions are provided on an annual basis at the level of country and sector and gridded with monthly seasonality. These estimates are comparable to, but generally slightly higher than, existing global inventories. Emissions over the most recent years are more uncertain, particularly in low- and middle-income regions where country-specific emission inventories are less available. Future work will involve refining and updating these emission estimates, estimating emissions' uncertainty, and publication of the system as open-source software.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [5];  [1];  [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [1];  [8];  [9];  [6];  [10];  [1];  [1];  [9]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.; Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science
  3. International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria)
  4. European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre/Directorate Energy, Transport and Climate
  5. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
  6. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering
  7. National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)
  8. Asia Center for Air Pollution Research (ACAP), Niigata (Japan). Japan Environmental Sanitation Center (JESC) and Atmospheric Research Dept.
  9. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Earth System Science
  10. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy System Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Earth and Environmental Systems Science Division; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1474478
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1421326; OSTI ID: 1482098
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-123932
Journal ID: ISSN 1991-9603
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; NNH15AZ64I; AC05-76RLO1830; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geoscientific Model Development (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Geoscientific Model Development (Online); Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1991-9603
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; CEDS; Historical Emissions

Citation Formats

Hoesly, Rachel M., Smith, Steven J., Feng, Leyang, Klimont, Zbigniew, Janssens-Maenhout, Greet, Pitkanen, Tyler, Seibert, Jonathan J., Vu, Linh, Andres, Robert J., Bolt, Ryan M., Bond, Tami C., Dawidowski, Laura, Kholod, Nazar, Kurokawa, June-ichi, Li, Meng, Liu, Liang, Lu, Zifeng, Moura, Maria Cecilia P., O'Rourke, Patrick R., and Zhang, Qiang. Historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS). United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.5194/gmd-11-369-2018.
Hoesly, Rachel M., Smith, Steven J., Feng, Leyang, Klimont, Zbigniew, Janssens-Maenhout, Greet, Pitkanen, Tyler, Seibert, Jonathan J., Vu, Linh, Andres, Robert J., Bolt, Ryan M., Bond, Tami C., Dawidowski, Laura, Kholod, Nazar, Kurokawa, June-ichi, Li, Meng, Liu, Liang, Lu, Zifeng, Moura, Maria Cecilia P., O'Rourke, Patrick R., & Zhang, Qiang. Historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS). United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-369-2018
Hoesly, Rachel M., Smith, Steven J., Feng, Leyang, Klimont, Zbigniew, Janssens-Maenhout, Greet, Pitkanen, Tyler, Seibert, Jonathan J., Vu, Linh, Andres, Robert J., Bolt, Ryan M., Bond, Tami C., Dawidowski, Laura, Kholod, Nazar, Kurokawa, June-ichi, Li, Meng, Liu, Liang, Lu, Zifeng, Moura, Maria Cecilia P., O'Rourke, Patrick R., and Zhang, Qiang. Mon . "Historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS)". United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-369-2018. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1474478.
@article{osti_1474478,
title = {Historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS)},
author = {Hoesly, Rachel M. and Smith, Steven J. and Feng, Leyang and Klimont, Zbigniew and Janssens-Maenhout, Greet and Pitkanen, Tyler and Seibert, Jonathan J. and Vu, Linh and Andres, Robert J. and Bolt, Ryan M. and Bond, Tami C. and Dawidowski, Laura and Kholod, Nazar and Kurokawa, June-ichi and Li, Meng and Liu, Liang and Lu, Zifeng and Moura, Maria Cecilia P. and O'Rourke, Patrick R. and Zhang, Qiang},
abstractNote = {Abstract. We present a new data set of annual historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic chemically reactive gases (CO, CH4, NH3, NOx, SO2, NMVOCs), carbonaceous aerosols (black carbon – BC, and organic carbon – OC), and CO2 developed with the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS). We improve upon existing inventories with a more consistent and reproducible methodology applied to all emission species, updated emission factors, and recent estimates through 2014. The data system relies on existing energy consumption data sets and regional and country-specific inventories to produce trends over recent decades. All emission species are consistently estimated using the same activity data over all time periods. Emissions are provided on an annual basis at the level of country and sector and gridded with monthly seasonality. These estimates are comparable to, but generally slightly higher than, existing global inventories. Emissions over the most recent years are more uncertain, particularly in low- and middle-income regions where country-specific emission inventories are less available. Future work will involve refining and updating these emission estimates, estimating emissions' uncertainty, and publication of the system as open-source software.},
doi = {10.5194/gmd-11-369-2018},
journal = {Geoscientific Model Development (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

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  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 12, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2019ms001916

Discrepancy between simulated and observed ethane and propane levels explained by underestimated fossil emissions
journal, February 2018


Emerging Asian aerosol patterns
journal, July 2019

  • Samset, Bjørn H.; Lund, Marianne T.; Bollasina, Massimo
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 12, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0424-5

Recent intensification of winter haze in China linked to foreign emissions and meteorology
journal, February 2018


Radiative forcing by light-absorbing aerosols of pyrogenetic iron oxides
journal, May 2018


Global and regional trends of atmospheric sulfur
journal, January 2019


Gridded emissions and land-use data for 2005–2100 under diverse socioeconomic and climate mitigation scenarios
journal, October 2018

  • Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Ito, Akihiko
  • Scientific Data, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/sdata.2018.210

Unraveling driving forces explaining significant reduction in satellite-inferred Arctic surface albedo since the 1980s
journal, November 2019

  • Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Fu, Qiang
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 116, Issue 48
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915258116

Informing energy consumption uncertainty: an analysis of energy data revisions
journal, December 2018


Nonlinear impacts of future anthropogenic aerosol emissions on Arctic warming
journal, March 2019


Causes of climate change over the historical record
journal, December 2019

  • Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Brönnimann, Stefan; Cowan, Tim
  • Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 12
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FTIR time series of stratospheric NO 2 over Hefei, China, and comparisons with OMI and GEOS-Chem model data
journal, January 2019


Exploring the relationship between surface PM2.5 and meteorology in Northern India
journal, January 2018

  • Schnell, Jordan L.; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-10157-2018

Foreign and domestic contributions to springtime ozone over China
journal, January 2018

  • Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Yan, Yingying
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-11447-2018

Trends in China's anthropogenic emissions since 2010 as the consequence of clean air actions
journal, January 2018


A new global anthropogenic SO 2 emission inventory for the last decade: a mosaic of satellite-derived and bottom-up emissions
journal, January 2018


Seasonal variation and light absorption property of carbonaceous aerosol in a typical glacier region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau
journal, January 2018

  • Niu, Hewen; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Hailong
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-6441-2018

Nepal emission inventory – Part I: Technologies and combustion sources (NEEMI-Tech) for 2001–2016
journal, January 2019

  • Sadavarte, Pankaj; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Bhave, Prakash
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 19, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-19-12953-2019

Anthropogenic aerosol forcing under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways
journal, January 2019

  • Lund, Marianne T.; Myhre, Gunnar; Samset, Bjørn H.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 19, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-19-13827-2019

Variability, timescales, and nonlinearity in climate responses to black carbon emissions
journal, January 2019

  • Yang, Yang; Smith, Steven J.; Wang, Hailong
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 19, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-19-2405-2019

Characterising the seasonal and geographical variability in tropospheric ozone, stratospheric influence and recent changes
journal, January 2019

  • Williams, Ryan S.; Hegglin, Michaela I.; Kerridge, Brian J.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 19, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-19-3589-2019

Exploring 2016–2017 surface ozone pollution over China: source contributions and meteorological influences
journal, January 2019


Investigation of the global methane budget over 1980–2017 using GFDL-AM4.1
journal, January 2020

  • He, Jian; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 20, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-20-805-2020

Decadal fates and impacts of nitrogen additions on temperate forest carbon storage: a data–model comparison
journal, January 2019

  • Cheng, Susan J.; Hess, Peter G.; Wieder, William R.
  • Biogeosciences, Vol. 16, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.5194/bg-16-2771-2019

ESD Reviews: Climate feedbacks in the Earth system and prospects for their evaluation
journal, January 2019

  • Heinze, Christoph; Eyring, Veronika; Friedlingstein, Pierre
  • Earth System Dynamics, Vol. 10, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.5194/esd-10-379-2019

Gridded emissions of air pollutants for the period 1970–2012 within EDGAR v4.3.2
journal, January 2018

  • Crippa, Monica; Guizzardi, Diego; Muntean, Marilena
  • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 10, Issue 4
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EDGAR v4.3.2 Global Atlas of the three major greenhouse gas emissions for the period 1970–2012
journal, January 2019

  • Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Crippa, Monica; Guizzardi, Diego
  • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 11, Issue 3
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Concentrations and radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols from 1750 to 2014 simulated with the Oslo CTM3 and CEDS emission inventory
journal, January 2018

  • Lund, Marianne Tronstad; Myhre, Gunnar; Haslerud, Amund Søvde
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 11, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-11-4909-2018

Global emissions pathways under different socioeconomic scenarios for use in CMIP6: a dataset of harmonized emissions trajectories through the end of the century
journal, January 2019

  • Gidden, Matthew J.; Riahi, Keywan; Smith, Steven J.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 12, Issue 4
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HERMESv3, a stand-alone multi-scale atmospheric emission modelling framework – Part 1: global and regional module
journal, January 2019

  • Guevara, Marc; Tena, Carles; Porquet, Manuel
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 12, Issue 5
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gcamdata: An R Package for Preparation, Synthesis, and Tracking of Input Data for the GCAM Integrated Human-Earth Systems Model
journal, January 2019

  • Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Dorheim, Kalyn; Cui, Ryna
  • Journal of Open Research Software, Vol. 7
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Aerosols in atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles of nutrients
text, January 2018

  • Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Tsigaridis, Kostas
  • Columbia University
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The GFDL Global Atmosphere and Land Model AM4.0/LM4.0: 1. Simulation Characteristics With Prescribed SSTs
journal, March 2018

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  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 10, Issue 3
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Source Apportionments of Aerosols and Their Direct Radiative Forcing and Long-Term Trends Over Continental United States
journal, June 2018

  • Yang, Yang; Wang, Hailong; Smith, Steven J.
  • Earth's Future, Vol. 6, Issue 6
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Very Strong Atmospheric Methane Growth in the 4 Years 2014–2017: Implications for the Paris Agreement
journal, March 2019

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  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 33, Issue 3
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Sensitivity of Ozone Dry Deposition to Ecosystem‐Atmosphere Interactions: A Critical Appraisal of Observations and Simulations
journal, October 2019

  • Lin, Meiyun; Malyshev, Sergey; Shevliakova, Elena
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 33, Issue 10
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Modulation of the ENSO on Winter Aerosol Pollution in the Eastern Region of China
journal, November 2018

  • Sun, Jiaren; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Wenjun
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 123, Issue 21
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Impact of Anthropogenic Emission Injection Height Uncertainty on Global Sulfur Dioxide and Aerosol Distribution
journal, April 2019

  • Yang, Yang; Smith, Steven J.; Wang, Hailong
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 124, Issue 8
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Constraining Aging Processes of Black Carbon in the Community Atmosphere Model Using Environmental Chamber Measurements
journal, October 2018

  • Wang, Yuan; Ma, Po‐Lun; Peng, Jianfei
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 10, Issue 10
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The DOE E3SM Coupled Model Version 1: Overview and Evaluation at Standard Resolution
journal, July 2019

  • Golaz, Jean‐Christophe; Caldwell, Peter M.; Van Roekel, Luke P.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 7
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Atmospheric Acetaldehyde: Importance of Air‐Sea Exchange and a Missing Source in the Remote Troposphere
journal, May 2019

  • Wang, Siyuan; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Hills, Alan
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, Issue 10
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Global Modeling of Secondary Organic Aerosol With Organic Nucleation
journal, July 2019

  • Zhu, Jialei; Penner, Joyce E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 124, Issue 14
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Are Changes in Atmospheric Circulation Important for Black Carbon Aerosol Impacts on Clouds, Precipitation, and Radiation?
journal, July 2019

  • Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.; Hawcroft, M. K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 124, Issue 14
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Decrease in radiative forcing by organic aerosol nucleation, climate, and land use change
journal, January 2019


Carbon and health implications of trade restrictions
journal, October 2019


Current level and rate of warming determine emissions budgets under ambitious mitigation
journal, June 2018

  • Leach, Nicholas J.; Millar, Richard J.; Haustein, Karsten
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 11, Issue 8
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Marginal climate and air quality costs of aviation emissions
journal, November 2019

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  • Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 11
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Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning – an updated assessment
journal, January 2019


Reviews and syntheses: the GESAMP atmospheric iron deposition model intercomparison study
journal, January 2018

  • Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Ito, Akinori; Kanakidou, Maria
  • Biogeosciences, Vol. 15, Issue 21
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Update and evaluation of the ozone dry deposition in Oslo CTM3 v1.0
journal, January 2019

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  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 12, Issue 11
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The generation of gridded emissions data for CMIP6
journal, January 2020

  • Feng, Leyang; Smith, Steven J.; Braun, Caleb
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 13, Issue 2
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Reflecting on progress since the 2005 NARSTO emissions inventory report
text, January 2019


Causes of climate change over the historical record
text, January 2019


The PRIMAP-hist national historical emissions time series (1750-2019) v2.3
dataset, January 2021


Residual fossil CO2 emissions in 1.5–2 °C pathways
journal, June 2018


Aerosols in atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles of nutrients
journal, May 2018

  • Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Tsigaridis, Kostas
  • Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 6
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ESD Reviews: Climate feedbacks in the Earth system and prospects for their evaluation
text, January 2019


The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.3-HAM2.3-Part 2: Cloud evaluation, aerosol radiative forcing, and climate sensitivity
text, January 2019


Six-year source apportionment of submicron organic aerosols from near-continuous highly time-resolved measurements at SIRTA (Paris area, France)
journal, January 2019

  • Zhang, Yunjiang; Favez, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Eudes
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Reflecting on progress since the 2005 NARSTO emissions inventory report
text, January 2019


What is the potential of silver fir to thrive under warmer and drier climate?
text, January 2019


Evaluating Modeled Impact Metrics for Human Health, Agriculture Growth, and Near-Term Climate: EVALUATING MODELED IMPACT METRICS
journal, December 2017

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  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 122, Issue 24
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Multimodel Surface Temperature Responses to Removal of U.S. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions
journal, March 2018

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Abundance and Emission Flux of the Anthropogenic Iron Oxide Aerosols From the East Asian Continental Outflow
journal, October 2018

  • Yoshida, Atsushi; Ohata, Sho; Moteki, Nobuhiro
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 123, Issue 19
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Source Contributions to Carbon Monoxide Concentrations During KORUS‐AQ Based on CAM‐chem Model Applications
journal, March 2019

  • Tang, Wenfu; Emmons, Louisa K.; Arellano Jr, Avelino F.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 124, Issue 5
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Anthropogenic Aerosol Indirect Effects in Cirrus Clouds
journal, October 2018

  • Penner, Joyce E.; Zhou, Cheng; Garnier, Anne
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 123, Issue 20
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Arctic Amplification Response to Individual Climate Drivers
journal, July 2019

  • Stjern, Camilla Weum; Lund, Marianne Tronstad; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
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Blue skies over China: The effect of pollution-control on solar power generation and revenues
journal, November 2018


Emission or atmospheric processes? An attempt to attribute the source of large bias of aerosols in eastern China simulated by global climate models
journal, January 2018

  • Fan, Tianyi; Liu, Xiaohong; Ma, Po-Lun
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 2
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Comparison and evaluation of anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over China
journal, January 2018

  • Li, Meng; Klimont, Zbigniew; Zhang, Qiang
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 5
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Rapid Adjustments Cause Weak Surface Temperature Response to Increased Black Carbon Concentrations: Rapid Adjustments Cause Weak BC Response
journal, November 2017

  • Stjern, Camilla Weum; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Myhre, Gunnar
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 122, Issue 21
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Radiative Forcing and Health Impact of Aerosols and Ozone in China as the Consequence of Clean Air Actions over 2012–2017
journal, November 2019

  • Dang, Ruijun; Liao, Hong
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Rapid increase in atmospheric iodine levels in the North Atlantic since the mid-20th century
journal, April 2018

  • Cuevas, Carlos A.; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Corella, Juan Pablo
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 9, Issue 1
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Source attribution of black carbon and its direct radiative forcing in China
journal, January 2017

  • Yang, Yang; Wang, Hailong; Smith, Steven J.
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AerChemMIP: quantifying the effects of chemistry and aerosols in CMIP6
journal, January 2017

  • Collins, William J.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Schulz, Michael
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 2
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