skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Fuel film thickness measurements using refractive index matching in a stratified-charge SI engine operated on E30 and alkylate fuels

Abstract

This paper shows fuel film measurements in a spark-ignited direct injection engine using refractive index matching (RIM). The RIM technique is applied to measure the fuel impingement of a high research octane number gasoline fuel with 30 vol% ethanol content at two intake pressures and coolant temperatures. Measurements are conducted for an alkylate fuel at one operating case, as well. It is shown that the fuel volume on the piston surface increases for lower intake pressure and lower coolant temperature and that the alkylate fuel shows very little spray impingement. The fuel films can be linked to increased soot emissions. A detailed description of the calibration technique is provided and measurement uncertainties are discussed. The dependency of the RIM signal on refractive index changes is measured. The RIM technique provides quantitative film thickness measurements up to 0.9 µm in this engine. Finally, for thicker films, semi-quantitative results of film thickness can be utilized to study the distribution of impinged fuel.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1]
  1. Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Dept. of Reactive Flows and Measurement Technology (RSM)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
  3. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  4. Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). School of Mechanical Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Beijing Inst. of Technology (China)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Transportation Office. Bioenergy Technologies Office; USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); German Research Foundation (DFG); China Scholarship Council (CSC)
OSTI Identifier:
1473928
Report Number(s):
SAND-2018-9957J
Journal ID: ISSN 0723-4864; 667784
Grant/Contract Number:  
NA0003525; 201506035029
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Experiments in Fluids
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 59; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0723-4864
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

Ding, Carl-Philipp, Sjöberg, Magnus, Vuilleumier, David, Reuss, David L., He, Xu, and Böhm, Benjamin. Fuel film thickness measurements using refractive index matching in a stratified-charge SI engine operated on E30 and alkylate fuels. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s00348-018-2512-5.
Ding, Carl-Philipp, Sjöberg, Magnus, Vuilleumier, David, Reuss, David L., He, Xu, & Böhm, Benjamin. Fuel film thickness measurements using refractive index matching in a stratified-charge SI engine operated on E30 and alkylate fuels. United States. doi:10.1007/s00348-018-2512-5.
Ding, Carl-Philipp, Sjöberg, Magnus, Vuilleumier, David, Reuss, David L., He, Xu, and Böhm, Benjamin. Mon . "Fuel film thickness measurements using refractive index matching in a stratified-charge SI engine operated on E30 and alkylate fuels". United States. doi:10.1007/s00348-018-2512-5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1473928.
@article{osti_1473928,
title = {Fuel film thickness measurements using refractive index matching in a stratified-charge SI engine operated on E30 and alkylate fuels},
author = {Ding, Carl-Philipp and Sjöberg, Magnus and Vuilleumier, David and Reuss, David L. and He, Xu and Böhm, Benjamin},
abstractNote = {This paper shows fuel film measurements in a spark-ignited direct injection engine using refractive index matching (RIM). The RIM technique is applied to measure the fuel impingement of a high research octane number gasoline fuel with 30 vol% ethanol content at two intake pressures and coolant temperatures. Measurements are conducted for an alkylate fuel at one operating case, as well. It is shown that the fuel volume on the piston surface increases for lower intake pressure and lower coolant temperature and that the alkylate fuel shows very little spray impingement. The fuel films can be linked to increased soot emissions. A detailed description of the calibration technique is provided and measurement uncertainties are discussed. The dependency of the RIM signal on refractive index changes is measured. The RIM technique provides quantitative film thickness measurements up to 0.9 µm in this engine. Finally, for thicker films, semi-quantitative results of film thickness can be utilized to study the distribution of impinged fuel.},
doi = {10.1007/s00348-018-2512-5},
journal = {Experiments in Fluids},
number = 3,
volume = 59,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Example of the refractive index matching technique with a large illumination angle - α ≈ 30° (a) and an example with illumination from a small angle - α ≈ 5° (b), schematic of a rough surface with applied liquid volume and illumination, showing a simplified sketch of themore » scattering at the glass-liquid-air interface and the liquid flow from higher to lower levels as discussed in Section 4.2 (c)« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Systematic LIF fuel wall film investigation
journal, May 2016


High-speed imaging of OH* and soot temperature and concentration in a stratified-charge direct-injection gasoline engine
journal, January 2005

  • Stojkovic, Boris D.; Fansler, Todd D.; Drake, Michael C.
  • Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 30, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.proci.2004.08.021

Development of laser-induced fluorescence to quantify in-cylinder fuel wall films
journal, August 2017

  • Geiler, Jan N.; Grzeszik, Roman; Quaing, Sebastian
  • International Journal of Engine Research, Vol. 19, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1177/1468087417733865

Advanced gasoline engine development using optical diagnostics and numerical modeling
journal, January 2007


Quantification of Transient fuel Films Under Elevated Ambient Pressure Environments
journal, January 2012


The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of fused silica and crystal quartz
journal, May 1983


Experimental Investigation of Fuel Film Characteristics of Ethanol Impinging Spray at Ultra-Low Temperature
conference, April 2017

  • Pan, Hujie; Xu, Min; Hung, David
  • WCX™ 17: SAE World Congress Experience, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2017-01-0851

Piston Fuel Films as a Source of Smoke and Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Wall-Controlled Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Engine
conference, March 2003

  • Drake, M. C.; Fansler, T. D.; Solomon, A. S.
  • SAE 2003 World Congress & Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2003-01-0547

Examination of Iso-octane/Ketone Mixtures for Quantitative LIF Measurements in a DISI Engine
conference, March 2002

  • Han, Donghee; Steeper, Richard R.
  • SAE 2002 World Congress & Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2002-01-0837

In cylinder visualization of stratified combustion of E85 and main sources of soot formation
journal, November 2015


Mixture Evaporative Characteristics Prediction for LIF Measurements Using PSRK (Predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong) Equation of State
conference, October 2002

  • Lin, Mong-Tung; Sick, Volker
  • SAE Powertrain & Fluid Systems Conference & Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2002-01-2750

Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions
journal, March 2012

  • He, Xin; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.
  • Energy & Fuels, Vol. 26, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/ef201917p

Time-Resolved Fuel Film Thickness Measurement for Direct Injection SI Engines Using Refractive Index Matching
conference, April 2011

  • Maligne, David; Bruneaux, Gilles
  • SAE 2011 World Congress & Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2011-01-1215

Invited Review: Combustion instability in spray-guided stratified-charge engines: A review
journal, February 2015

  • Fansler, Todd D.; Reuss, David L.; Sick, Volker
  • International Journal of Engine Research, Vol. 16, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1177/1468087414565675

Novel method for the measurement of liquid film thickness during fuel spray impingement on surfaces
journal, January 2016


Temperature Coefficients of the Refractive Index for Complex Hydrocarbon Mixtures
journal, May 2014

  • Wen, Qing; Shen, Jun; Gieleciak, Rafal
  • International Journal of Thermophysics, Vol. 35, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10765-014-1604-6

Investigations of the Formation and Oxidation of Soot Inside a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Using Advanced Laser-Techniques
conference, April 2010

  • Velji, Amin; Yeom, Kitae; Wagner, Uwe
  • SAE 2010 World Congress & Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2010-01-0352

A laser induced fluorescence technique for quantifying transient liquid fuel films utilising total internal reflection
journal, July 2009


High-Speed UV and Visible Laser Shadowgraphy of GDI In-Cylinder Pool Fire
conference, October 2016

  • Miyashita, Kazuya; Tsukamoto, Takamichi; Fukuda, Yusei
  • SAE 2016 International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2016-01-2165

Fuel Film Temperature and Thickness Measurements on the Piston Crown of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine
conference, April 2005

  • Park, S.; Ghandhi, J. B.
  • SAE 2005 World Congress & Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2005-01-0649

Measurement of Diesel Spray Impingement and Fuel Film Characteristics Using Refractive Index Matching Method
conference, April 2007

  • Yang, Bo; Ghandhi, Jaal
  • SAE World Congress & Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2007-01-0485

Piston Wetting in an Optical DISI Engine: Fuel Films, Pool Fires, and Soot Generation
conference, March 2001

  • Stevens, Eric; Steeper, Richard
  • SAE 2001 World Congress, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2001-01-1203

Piston Fuel Film Observations in an Optical Access GDI Engine
conference, May 2001

  • Karlsson, Rolf B.; Heywood, John B.
  • International Spring Fuels & Lubricants Meeting, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2001-01-2022

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Experimental study on the boiling criterion of the fuel film formed from spray/wall impingement
    journal, November 2019


    A numerical–experimental assessment of wall impingement models for spark-ignition direct-injection engines
    journal, July 2019

    • Grover, Ronald O.; Fansler, Todd D.; Lippert, Andreas
    • International Journal of Engine Research, Vol. 21, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1177/1468087419863966

    Effect of engine conditions and injection timing on piston-top fuel films for stratified direct-injection spark-ignition operation using E30
    journal, September 2019

    • Ding, Carl-Philipp; Vuilleumier, David; Kim, Namho
    • International Journal of Engine Research, Vol. 21, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1177/1468087419869785