skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Impact of injection strategies on combustion characteristics, efficiency and emissions of gasoline compression ignition operation in a heavy-duty multi-cylinder engine

Abstract

Gasoline compression ignition using a single gasoline-type fuel for direct/port injection has been shown as a method to achieve low-temperature combustion with low engine-out NO(x)and soot emissions and high indicated thermal efficiency. However, key technical barriers to achieving low-temperature combustion on multi-cylinder engines include the air handling system (limited amount of exhaust gas recirculation) as well as mechanical engine limitations (e.g. peak pressure rise rate). In light of these limitations, high-temperature combustion with reduced amounts of exhaust gas recirculation appears more practical. Furthermore, for high-temperature gasoline compression ignition, an effective aftertreatment system allows high thermal efficiency with low tailpipe-out emissions. In this work, experimental testing was conducted on a 12.4 L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine operating with high-temperature gasoline compression ignition combustion with port and direct injection. Additionally, engine testing was conducted at an engine speed of 1038 r/min and brake mean effective pressure of 1.4 MPa for three injection strategies, late pilot injection, early pilot injection, and port/direct fuel injection. Furthermore, the impact on engine performance and emissions with respect to varying the combustion phasing were quantified within this study. At the same combustion phasing, early pilot injection and port/direct fuel injection had an earlier start of combustion andmore » higher maximum pressure rise rates than late pilot injection attributable to more premixed fuel from pilot or port injection; however, brake thermal efficiencies were higher with late pilot injection due to reduced heat transfer. Early pilot injection also exhibited the highest cylinder-to-cylinder variations due to differences in injector behavior as well as the spray/wall interactions affecting mixing and evaporation process. Overall, peak brake thermal efficiency of 46.1% and 46% for late pilot injection and port/direct fuel injection was achieved comparable to diesel baseline (45.9%), while early pilot injection showed the lowest brake thermal efficiency (45.3%).« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA
  2. Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA
  3. Navistar Inc., Melrose Park, IL, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1473718
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1657479
Grant/Contract Number:  
EE0007767; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
International Journal of Engine Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: International Journal of Engine Research; Journal ID: ISSN 1468-0874
Publisher:
SAGE
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; Gasoline compression ignition; Brake thermal efficiency; Pilot injection, Port fuel injection; Advanced combustion engines

Citation Formats

Wang, Buyu, Pamminger, Michael, Vojtech, Ryan, and Wallner, Thomas. Impact of injection strategies on combustion characteristics, efficiency and emissions of gasoline compression ignition operation in a heavy-duty multi-cylinder engine. United Kingdom: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1177/1468087418801660.
Wang, Buyu, Pamminger, Michael, Vojtech, Ryan, & Wallner, Thomas. Impact of injection strategies on combustion characteristics, efficiency and emissions of gasoline compression ignition operation in a heavy-duty multi-cylinder engine. United Kingdom. doi:10.1177/1468087418801660.
Wang, Buyu, Pamminger, Michael, Vojtech, Ryan, and Wallner, Thomas. Tue . "Impact of injection strategies on combustion characteristics, efficiency and emissions of gasoline compression ignition operation in a heavy-duty multi-cylinder engine". United Kingdom. doi:10.1177/1468087418801660.
@article{osti_1473718,
title = {Impact of injection strategies on combustion characteristics, efficiency and emissions of gasoline compression ignition operation in a heavy-duty multi-cylinder engine},
author = {Wang, Buyu and Pamminger, Michael and Vojtech, Ryan and Wallner, Thomas},
abstractNote = {Gasoline compression ignition using a single gasoline-type fuel for direct/port injection has been shown as a method to achieve low-temperature combustion with low engine-out NO(x)and soot emissions and high indicated thermal efficiency. However, key technical barriers to achieving low-temperature combustion on multi-cylinder engines include the air handling system (limited amount of exhaust gas recirculation) as well as mechanical engine limitations (e.g. peak pressure rise rate). In light of these limitations, high-temperature combustion with reduced amounts of exhaust gas recirculation appears more practical. Furthermore, for high-temperature gasoline compression ignition, an effective aftertreatment system allows high thermal efficiency with low tailpipe-out emissions. In this work, experimental testing was conducted on a 12.4 L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine operating with high-temperature gasoline compression ignition combustion with port and direct injection. Additionally, engine testing was conducted at an engine speed of 1038 r/min and brake mean effective pressure of 1.4 MPa for three injection strategies, late pilot injection, early pilot injection, and port/direct fuel injection. Furthermore, the impact on engine performance and emissions with respect to varying the combustion phasing were quantified within this study. At the same combustion phasing, early pilot injection and port/direct fuel injection had an earlier start of combustion and higher maximum pressure rise rates than late pilot injection attributable to more premixed fuel from pilot or port injection; however, brake thermal efficiencies were higher with late pilot injection due to reduced heat transfer. Early pilot injection also exhibited the highest cylinder-to-cylinder variations due to differences in injector behavior as well as the spray/wall interactions affecting mixing and evaporation process. Overall, peak brake thermal efficiency of 46.1% and 46% for late pilot injection and port/direct fuel injection was achieved comparable to diesel baseline (45.9%), while early pilot injection showed the lowest brake thermal efficiency (45.3%).},
doi = {10.1177/1468087418801660},
journal = {International Journal of Engine Research},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1177/1468087418801660

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Development of a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) Engine
journal, April 2014

  • Sellnau, Mark; Foster, Matthew; Hoyer, Kevin
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.4271/2014-01-1300

An Experimental Investigation of Low-Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines
journal, April 2011

  • Ciatti, Stephen; Subramanian, Swami Nathan
  • Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 133, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4002915

Chemical kinetic and combustion characteristics of transportation fuels
journal, January 2015


GDCI Multi-Cylinder Engine for High Fuel Efficiency and Low Emissions
journal, January 2015

  • Sellnau, Mark; Moore, Wayne; Sinnamon, James
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 8, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.4271/2015-01-0834

Effects of Gasoline Reactivity and Ethanol Content on Boosted, Premixed and Partially Stratified Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC)
journal, January 2015

  • Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Dernotte, Jeremie
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 8, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.4271/2015-01-0813

Conventional and Low Temperature Combustion Using Naphtha Fuels in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
journal, April 2016

  • Zhang, Yu; Kumar, Praveen; Traver, Michael
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.4271/2016-01-0764

Energy Distribution Analysis in Boosted HCCI-like / LTGC Engines - Understanding the Trade-Offs to Maximize the Thermal Efficiency
journal, January 2015

  • Dernotte, Jeremie; Dec, John E.; Ji, Chunsheng
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 8, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.4271/2015-01-0824

A comparison of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) and Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) strategies at high load, low speed conditions
journal, November 2016


Comparing late-cycle autoignition stability for single- and two-stage ignition fuels in HCCI engines
journal, January 2007


Increasing the Load Range, Load-to-Boost Ratio, and Efficiency of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines
journal, February 2017

  • Dec, John E.; Dernotte, Jeremie; Ji, Chunsheng
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 10, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.4271/2017-01-0731

Investigation of the Sources of Combustion Noise in HCCI Engines
journal, April 2014

  • Dernotte, Jeremie; Dec, John E.; Ji, Chunsheng
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.4271/2014-01-1272

Gasoline compression ignition operation on a multi-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine
journal, March 2018


Engine Technologies for Clean and High Efficiency Heavy Duty Engines
journal, January 2012

  • De Ojeda, William; Rajkumar, M.
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 5, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.4271/2012-01-1976

Fuel octane effects on gasoline multiple premixed compression ignition (MPCI) mode
journal, January 2013


Tailoring HCCI heat-release rates with partial fuel stratification: Comparison of two-stage and single-stage-ignition fuels
journal, January 2011


Second Generation GDCI Multi-Cylinder Engine for High Fuel Efficiency and US Tier 3 Emissions
journal, April 2016

  • Sellnau, Mark; Foster, Matthew; Moore, Wayne
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.4271/2016-01-0760

Review of high efficiency and clean reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines
journal, February 2015


Use of Adaptive Injection Strategies to Increase the Full Load Limit of RCCI Operation
journal, April 2016

  • Hanson, Reed; Ickes, Andrew; Wallner, Thomas
  • Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 138, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4032847