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Title: Extreme condition nanocarbon formation under air and argon atmospheres during detonation of composition B-3

Abstract

Novel nanocarbons synthesized by extreme conditions produce products with various chemical and physical properties. Herein through high explosive detonation of Composition B-3 (40% TNT, 60% RDX), pressures and temperatures not classically attainable in laboratory syntheses provide access to interesting carbon allotropes. For example, detonations of Composition B-3 are regularly used to synthesize the now commercially-available nanodiamond (3e5 nm spherical diamond particles) through quenching of the detonation by ice collars at high pressures and temperatures. Detonation conditions of Composition B-3, in this study, were modified by altering the atmosphere (air versus Ar) without quenching, consequently directing nanocarbon formation. X-ray scattering and microscopy elucidate that detonations performed in air produced spherical hollow core-shell nanocarbons, whereas detonations in Ar produced elongated nanocarbons. Although morphology bifurcates, spectroscopy reveals that both major detonation products are comprised of sp 2 hybridized carbon. As expected from air atmosphere detonations, surface functionalization is dominated by CeO bonding. The absence of oxygen in the Ar atmosphere detonations may propagate extended sheets of graphene that either stack together due to electrostatics or fold upon itself. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that modification of the detonation atmosphere provides an alternative route for the production of new and interesting nanocarbons.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source; Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRL); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1473699
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1479922; OSTI ID: 1544894
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-24138
Journal ID: ISSN 0008-6223; 143150
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; AC52-06NA25396; ACO2-76SF00515; 20150050DR
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Carbon
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 126; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0008-6223
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Huber, Rachel C., Ringstrand, Bryan S., Dattelbaum, Dana M., Gustavsen, Richard L., Seifert, Sӧnke, Firestone, Millicent A., and Podlesak, David W. Extreme condition nanocarbon formation under air and argon atmospheres during detonation of composition B-3. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2017.10.008.
Huber, Rachel C., Ringstrand, Bryan S., Dattelbaum, Dana M., Gustavsen, Richard L., Seifert, Sӧnke, Firestone, Millicent A., & Podlesak, David W. Extreme condition nanocarbon formation under air and argon atmospheres during detonation of composition B-3. United States. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2017.10.008.
Huber, Rachel C., Ringstrand, Bryan S., Dattelbaum, Dana M., Gustavsen, Richard L., Seifert, Sӧnke, Firestone, Millicent A., and Podlesak, David W. Thu . "Extreme condition nanocarbon formation under air and argon atmospheres during detonation of composition B-3". United States. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2017.10.008. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1473699.
@article{osti_1473699,
title = {Extreme condition nanocarbon formation under air and argon atmospheres during detonation of composition B-3},
author = {Huber, Rachel C. and Ringstrand, Bryan S. and Dattelbaum, Dana M. and Gustavsen, Richard L. and Seifert, Sӧnke and Firestone, Millicent A. and Podlesak, David W.},
abstractNote = {Novel nanocarbons synthesized by extreme conditions produce products with various chemical and physical properties. Herein through high explosive detonation of Composition B-3 (40% TNT, 60% RDX), pressures and temperatures not classically attainable in laboratory syntheses provide access to interesting carbon allotropes. For example, detonations of Composition B-3 are regularly used to synthesize the now commercially-available nanodiamond (3e5 nm spherical diamond particles) through quenching of the detonation by ice collars at high pressures and temperatures. Detonation conditions of Composition B-3, in this study, were modified by altering the atmosphere (air versus Ar) without quenching, consequently directing nanocarbon formation. X-ray scattering and microscopy elucidate that detonations performed in air produced spherical hollow core-shell nanocarbons, whereas detonations in Ar produced elongated nanocarbons. Although morphology bifurcates, spectroscopy reveals that both major detonation products are comprised of sp2 hybridized carbon. As expected from air atmosphere detonations, surface functionalization is dominated by CeO bonding. The absence of oxygen in the Ar atmosphere detonations may propagate extended sheets of graphene that either stack together due to electrostatics or fold upon itself. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that modification of the detonation atmosphere provides an alternative route for the production of new and interesting nanocarbons.},
doi = {10.1016/j.carbon.2017.10.008},
journal = {Carbon},
number = C,
volume = 126,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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Cited by: 5 works
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Figures / Tables:

Fig. S1. Fig. S1.: Comp B-3 chemical constituents are TNT (A) and RDX (B). Comp B-3 isentrope (C) shows the detonations path with regards to P and T in the carbon phase diagram, where it moves through the graphite and diamond sections but does not reach the liquid state. Four pressed pelletsmore » (~2.7 g each) of Comp B-3 assembled into a detonation stick placed in a stainless steel cylinder for detonation (D). Samples were collected by connecting a tube to an outlet at the top of the cylinder, which is connected to a vacuum with a silver filter in-line to collect soot trapped in the air column of the cylinder. (E) Time vs. oxygen concentration from Ar purging of detonation cylinder.« less

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