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Title: Time-Dependent Consolidation in Porous Geomaterials at In Situ Conditions of Temperature and Pressure

Abstract

Analysis of quartz sandstones shows that grain-scale crushing (fracture and rearrangement) and associated sealing of fractures contribute significantly to consolidation. The crushing strength (P*) for granular material is defined by laboratory experiments conducted at strain rates of 10 -4 to 10 -5 s -1 and room temperature. Based on experiments, many sandstones would require burial depths in excess of the actual maximum burial depth to create observed microstructure and density. In this paper, we use experiments and soil mechanics principles to determine rate laws for brittle consolidation of fine-grained quartz sand to better estimate in situ failure conditions of porous geomaterials. Experiments were conducted on St. Peter sand utilizing different isostatic consolidation and creep load paths at temperatures to 200 °C and at strain rates of 10 -4 to 10 -10 s -1. Experiment results are consistent with observed rate dependence of consolidation in soils, and P* for sand can be identified by the change in the dependence of consolidation rate with stress, allowing the extrapolation of P* determined in the laboratory to geologic rates and temperatures. Additionally, normalized P* values can be described by a polynomial function to quantify temperature, stress, and strain-rate relationships for the consolidation of porousmore » geomaterials by subcritical cracking. At geologic loading rates, P* for fine-grained quartz sand is achieved within ~3-km burial depth, and thus, shear-enhanced compaction under nonisostatic stress can occur at even shallower depths. Finally, these results demonstrate that time and temperature effects must be considered for predicting the brittle consolidation of sediments in depositional basins, petroleum reservoirs, and engineering applications.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Center for Tectonophysics. Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  2. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Center for Tectonophysics. Dept. of Geology and Geophysics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1472260
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1464865
Report Number(s):
[SAND2018-9751J]
[Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313; 667631]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[NA0003525; SC0001114]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 8]; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; geomechanics; soil mechanics; sand deformation

Citation Formats

Choens, R. C., and Chester, F. M. Time-Dependent Consolidation in Porous Geomaterials at In Situ Conditions of Temperature and Pressure. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1029/2017JB015097.
Choens, R. C., & Chester, F. M. Time-Dependent Consolidation in Porous Geomaterials at In Situ Conditions of Temperature and Pressure. United States. doi:10.1029/2017JB015097.
Choens, R. C., and Chester, F. M. Mon . "Time-Dependent Consolidation in Porous Geomaterials at In Situ Conditions of Temperature and Pressure". United States. doi:10.1029/2017JB015097. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1472260.
@article{osti_1472260,
title = {Time-Dependent Consolidation in Porous Geomaterials at In Situ Conditions of Temperature and Pressure},
author = {Choens, R. C. and Chester, F. M.},
abstractNote = {Analysis of quartz sandstones shows that grain-scale crushing (fracture and rearrangement) and associated sealing of fractures contribute significantly to consolidation. The crushing strength (P*) for granular material is defined by laboratory experiments conducted at strain rates of 10-4 to 10-5 s-1 and room temperature. Based on experiments, many sandstones would require burial depths in excess of the actual maximum burial depth to create observed microstructure and density. In this paper, we use experiments and soil mechanics principles to determine rate laws for brittle consolidation of fine-grained quartz sand to better estimate in situ failure conditions of porous geomaterials. Experiments were conducted on St. Peter sand utilizing different isostatic consolidation and creep load paths at temperatures to 200 °C and at strain rates of 10-4 to 10-10 s-1. Experiment results are consistent with observed rate dependence of consolidation in soils, and P* for sand can be identified by the change in the dependence of consolidation rate with stress, allowing the extrapolation of P* determined in the laboratory to geologic rates and temperatures. Additionally, normalized P* values can be described by a polynomial function to quantify temperature, stress, and strain-rate relationships for the consolidation of porous geomaterials by subcritical cracking. At geologic loading rates, P* for fine-grained quartz sand is achieved within ~3-km burial depth, and thus, shear-enhanced compaction under nonisostatic stress can occur at even shallower depths. Finally, these results demonstrate that time and temperature effects must be considered for predicting the brittle consolidation of sediments in depositional basins, petroleum reservoirs, and engineering applications.},
doi = {10.1029/2017JB015097},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth},
number = [8],
volume = [123],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Stress–strain–strain rate relation for the compressibility of sensitive natural clays
    journal, June 1985


    Time effects in the compression of sands
    journal, October 1998


    Stress corrosion cracking of quartz: A note on the influence of chemical environment
    journal, August 1981


    Structural diagenesis
    journal, December 2010


    Experimental compaction of quartz sand at low effective stress and temperature conditions
    journal, May 1991


    Assessment of the Enhanced Geothermal System Resource Base of the United States
    journal, March 2007

    • Blackwell, David D.; Negraru, Petru T.; Richards, Maria C.
    • Natural Resources Research, Vol. 15, Issue 4, p. 283-308
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11053-007-9028-7

    Subcritical crack propagation in rocks: theory, experimental results and applications
    journal, January 1982


    Mechanical Compaction of Porous Sandstone
    journal, November 1999

    • Wong, T. F.; Baud, P.
    • Oil & Gas Science and Technology, Vol. 54, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.2516/ogst:1999061

    Evolution of fluid chemistry in quartz compaction systems: Experimental investigations and numerical modeling
    journal, October 2007


    Variation of whole and fractured porous rock permeability with confining pressure
    journal, October 1978

    • Gangi, Anthony F.
    • International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, Vol. 15, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1016/0148-9062(78)90957-9

    Subcritical compaction and yielding of granular quartz sand
    journal, December 2003

    • Karner, Stephen L.; Chester, Frederick M.; Kronenberg, Andreas K.
    • Tectonophysics, Vol. 377, Issue 3-4
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2003.10.006

    Experimental pressure solution-deposition on quartz grains: the crucial effect of the nature of the fluid
    journal, January 1986


    Particle-size distribution and microstructures within simulated fault gouge
    journal, January 1989


    Fracture surface energy of the Punchbowl fault, San Andreas system
    journal, September 2005

    • Chester, Judith S.; Chester, Frederick M.; Kronenberg, Andreas K.
    • Nature, Vol. 437, Issue 7055
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature03942

    Landslides in vibrating sand box: What controls types of slope failure and frequency magnitude relations?
    journal, July 2006


    Breaking Up: Comminution Mechanisms in Sheared Simulated Fault Gouge
    journal, February 2011


    Evidence of regional subsidence and associated interior wetland loss induced by hydrocarbon production, Gulf Coast region, USA
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    • Morton, Robert A.; Bernier, Julie C.; Barras, John A.
    • Environmental Geology, Vol. 50, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00254-006-0207-3

    The consolidation of soils exhibiting creep under constant effective stress
    journal, March 1972


    Quantification of Brittle Deformation in Burial Compaction, Frio and Mount Simon Formation Sandstones
    journal, November 2003

    • Makowitz, A.; Milliken, K. L.
    • Journal of Sedimentary Research, Vol. 73, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1306/051003731007

    Time-dependent cracking and brittle creep in crustal rocks: A review
    journal, July 2013


    The general and congruent effects of structure in natural soils and weak rocks
    journal, September 1990


    The brittle-ductile transition in porous rock: A review
    journal, November 2012


    Laboratory deformation of granular quartz sand: Implications for the burial of clastic rocks
    journal, May 2005

    • Karner, Stephen L.; Chester, Judith S.; Chester, Frederick M.
    • AAPG Bulletin, Vol. 89, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1306/12200404010

    Time-dependent subsidence associated with drainage-induced compaction in Gulf of Mexico shales bounding a severely depleted gas reservoir
    journal, June 2014

    • Chang, Chandong; Mallman, Ellen; Zoback, Mark
    • AAPG Bulletin, Vol. 98, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1306/11111313009