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Title: Regulating Multiple Variables To Understand the Nucleation and Growth and Transformation of PbS Nanocrystal Superlattices

Abstract

Nanocrystals (NCs) can self-assemble into ordered superlattices with collective properties, but the ability for controlling NC assembly remains poorly understandable toward achievement of desired superlattice. This paper regulates several key variables of PbS NC assembly (e.g., NC concentration and solubility, solvent type, evaporation rate, seed mediation and thermal treatment), and thoroughly exploits the nucleation and growth as well as subsequent superlattice transformation of NC assembles and underneath mechanisms. PbS NCs in toluene self-assemble into a single face-centered-cubic (fcc) and body-centered-cubic (bcc) superlattice, respectively, at concentrations ≤17.5 and ≥70 mg/mL, but an intermediate concentration between them causes the coexistence of the two superlattices. Differently, NCs in hexane or chloroform self-assemble into only a single bcc superlattice. Distinct controls of NC assembly in solvent with variable concentrations confirm the NC concentration/solubility mediated nucleation and growth of superlattice, in which an evaporation-induced local gradient of NC concentration causes simultaneous nucleation of the two superlattices. The observation for the dense packing planes of NCs in fast growing fcc rather than bcc reveals the difference of entropic driving forces responsible for the two distinct superlattices. Decelerating the solvent evaporation does not amend the superlattice symmetry, but improves the superlattice crystallinity. In addition to shrinking themore » superlattice volume, thermal treatment also transforms the bcc to an fcc superlattice at 175 °C. Through a seed-meditated growth, the concentration-dependent superlattice does not change lattice symmetry over the course of continuous growth, whereas the newly nucleated secondary small nuclei through a concentration change have relatively higher surface energy and quickly dissolve in solution, providing additional NC sources for the ripening of the primarily nucleated larger and stable seeds. Finally, the observations under multiple controls of assembly parameters not only provide insights into the nucleation and growth as well as transformation of various superlattice polymorphs but also lay foundation for controlled fabrication of desired superlattice with tailored property.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [3]
  1. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.
  3. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  4. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.; Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Center for Micro-Engineered Materials
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1472259
Report Number(s):
SAND-2018-9732J
Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7863; 667617
Grant/Contract Number:  
NA0003525; DMR-1332208
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 139; Journal Issue: 41; Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7863
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Wang, Zhongwu, Bian, Kaifu, Nagaoka, Yasutaka, Fan, Hongyou, and Cao, Y. Charles. Regulating Multiple Variables To Understand the Nucleation and Growth and Transformation of PbS Nanocrystal Superlattices. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/jacs.7b06908.
Wang, Zhongwu, Bian, Kaifu, Nagaoka, Yasutaka, Fan, Hongyou, & Cao, Y. Charles. Regulating Multiple Variables To Understand the Nucleation and Growth and Transformation of PbS Nanocrystal Superlattices. United States. doi:10.1021/jacs.7b06908.
Wang, Zhongwu, Bian, Kaifu, Nagaoka, Yasutaka, Fan, Hongyou, and Cao, Y. Charles. Wed . "Regulating Multiple Variables To Understand the Nucleation and Growth and Transformation of PbS Nanocrystal Superlattices". United States. doi:10.1021/jacs.7b06908. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1472259.
@article{osti_1472259,
title = {Regulating Multiple Variables To Understand the Nucleation and Growth and Transformation of PbS Nanocrystal Superlattices},
author = {Wang, Zhongwu and Bian, Kaifu and Nagaoka, Yasutaka and Fan, Hongyou and Cao, Y. Charles},
abstractNote = {Nanocrystals (NCs) can self-assemble into ordered superlattices with collective properties, but the ability for controlling NC assembly remains poorly understandable toward achievement of desired superlattice. This paper regulates several key variables of PbS NC assembly (e.g., NC concentration and solubility, solvent type, evaporation rate, seed mediation and thermal treatment), and thoroughly exploits the nucleation and growth as well as subsequent superlattice transformation of NC assembles and underneath mechanisms. PbS NCs in toluene self-assemble into a single face-centered-cubic (fcc) and body-centered-cubic (bcc) superlattice, respectively, at concentrations ≤17.5 and ≥70 mg/mL, but an intermediate concentration between them causes the coexistence of the two superlattices. Differently, NCs in hexane or chloroform self-assemble into only a single bcc superlattice. Distinct controls of NC assembly in solvent with variable concentrations confirm the NC concentration/solubility mediated nucleation and growth of superlattice, in which an evaporation-induced local gradient of NC concentration causes simultaneous nucleation of the two superlattices. The observation for the dense packing planes of NCs in fast growing fcc rather than bcc reveals the difference of entropic driving forces responsible for the two distinct superlattices. Decelerating the solvent evaporation does not amend the superlattice symmetry, but improves the superlattice crystallinity. In addition to shrinking the superlattice volume, thermal treatment also transforms the bcc to an fcc superlattice at 175 °C. Through a seed-meditated growth, the concentration-dependent superlattice does not change lattice symmetry over the course of continuous growth, whereas the newly nucleated secondary small nuclei through a concentration change have relatively higher surface energy and quickly dissolve in solution, providing additional NC sources for the ripening of the primarily nucleated larger and stable seeds. Finally, the observations under multiple controls of assembly parameters not only provide insights into the nucleation and growth as well as transformation of various superlattice polymorphs but also lay foundation for controlled fabrication of desired superlattice with tailored property.},
doi = {10.1021/jacs.7b06908},
journal = {Journal of the American Chemical Society},
number = 41,
volume = 139,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}

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Works referencing / citing this record:

Monitoring Nanocrystal Self‐Assembly in Real Time Using In Situ Small‐Angle X‐Ray Scattering
journal, April 2019


In situ small-angle X-ray scattering environment for studying nanocrystal self-assembly upon controlled solvent evaporation
journal, March 2019

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