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Title: Analysis of Favorable Process Conditions for the Manufacturing of Thin-Wall Pieces of Mild Steel Obtained by Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM)

Abstract

Here, one of the challenges in additive manufacturing (AM) of metallic materials is to obtain workpieces free of defects with excellent physical, mechanical, and metallurgical properties. In wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) the influences of process conditions on thermal history, microstructure and resultant mechanical and surface properties of parts must be analyzed. In this work, 3D metallic parts of mild steel wire (American Welding Society-AWS ER70S-6) are built with a WAAM process by depositing layers of material on a substrate of a S235 JR steel sheet of 3 mm thickness under different process conditions, using as welding process the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) with cold metal transfer (CMT) technology, combined with a positioning system such as a computer numerical controlled (CNC) milling machine. Considering the hardness profiles, the estimated ultimate tensile strengths (UTS) derived from the hardness measurements and the microstructure findings, it can be concluded that the most favorable process conditions are the ones provided by CMT, with homogeneous hardness profiles, good mechanical strengths in accordance to conditions defined by standard, and without formation of a decohesionated external layer; CMT Continuous is the optimal option as the mechanical properties are better than single CMT.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4]
  1. Univ. Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain)
  2. Univ. of Vigo, Vigo (Spain)
  3. Univ. Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1472065
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1944
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; GMAW; WAAM; additive manufacturing; cold metal transfer; hardness; mechanical properties; microstructure; thermal input

Citation Formats

Prado-Cerqueira, José Luis, Camacho, Ana, Diéguez, José Luis, Rodríguez-Prieto, Álvaro, Aragón, Ana Maria, Lorenzo-Martín, Cinta, and Yanguas-Gil, Ángel. Analysis of Favorable Process Conditions for the Manufacturing of Thin-Wall Pieces of Mild Steel Obtained by Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM). United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3390/ma11081449.
Prado-Cerqueira, José Luis, Camacho, Ana, Diéguez, José Luis, Rodríguez-Prieto, Álvaro, Aragón, Ana Maria, Lorenzo-Martín, Cinta, & Yanguas-Gil, Ángel. Analysis of Favorable Process Conditions for the Manufacturing of Thin-Wall Pieces of Mild Steel Obtained by Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM). United States. doi:10.3390/ma11081449.
Prado-Cerqueira, José Luis, Camacho, Ana, Diéguez, José Luis, Rodríguez-Prieto, Álvaro, Aragón, Ana Maria, Lorenzo-Martín, Cinta, and Yanguas-Gil, Ángel. Thu . "Analysis of Favorable Process Conditions for the Manufacturing of Thin-Wall Pieces of Mild Steel Obtained by Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM)". United States. doi:10.3390/ma11081449. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1472065.
@article{osti_1472065,
title = {Analysis of Favorable Process Conditions for the Manufacturing of Thin-Wall Pieces of Mild Steel Obtained by Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM)},
author = {Prado-Cerqueira, José Luis and Camacho, Ana and Diéguez, José Luis and Rodríguez-Prieto, Álvaro and Aragón, Ana Maria and Lorenzo-Martín, Cinta and Yanguas-Gil, Ángel},
abstractNote = {Here, one of the challenges in additive manufacturing (AM) of metallic materials is to obtain workpieces free of defects with excellent physical, mechanical, and metallurgical properties. In wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) the influences of process conditions on thermal history, microstructure and resultant mechanical and surface properties of parts must be analyzed. In this work, 3D metallic parts of mild steel wire (American Welding Society-AWS ER70S-6) are built with a WAAM process by depositing layers of material on a substrate of a S235 JR steel sheet of 3 mm thickness under different process conditions, using as welding process the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) with cold metal transfer (CMT) technology, combined with a positioning system such as a computer numerical controlled (CNC) milling machine. Considering the hardness profiles, the estimated ultimate tensile strengths (UTS) derived from the hardness measurements and the microstructure findings, it can be concluded that the most favorable process conditions are the ones provided by CMT, with homogeneous hardness profiles, good mechanical strengths in accordance to conditions defined by standard, and without formation of a decohesionated external layer; CMT Continuous is the optimal option as the mechanical properties are better than single CMT.},
doi = {10.3390/ma11081449},
journal = {Materials},
number = 8,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

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